Painting and Photographic images of a nation in turmoil.
watersheds   Saranac lake in the Adirondack Mountain preserve.
  Twin Visions of two nations

Diverse ways of interpreting American landscapes

Mumford on the national importance of landscape

DuBois and the Black Belt, an alternative vision

threats to the public domain

land policy failures

landscape artists

Two further means of seeing:

• Painting Frederick Church & Thomas Cole's school.

Meaning in landscape art.

• photographs Alfred Steiglitz, and painting Georgia Okeeffe.

Alfred Stieglitz (January 1, 1864 – July 13, 1946) was an American photographer and modern art promoter who was effective over his fifty-year career in making photography an accepted art form.

Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (November 15, 1887 – March 6, 1986) was an American artist born near Sun Prairie, Wisconsin and died in Santa Fe, New Mexico.


The laws:

public trust, public domain & the idea of a commons as a preservationist tradition in America

Commerce & the Public Trust,

Siry: Marshes pp. 62-82. Plume bird visit.

• The Public Trust doctrine, the arguments for a national treasure; watersheds & water levels


writing to recover community- A class activity.

national scenery

country, a taste for

Landscape painting as a means of knowing the past

• CFAM Protecting the past on Canvass and the Ground–

Siry: Marsh, Shaler, and Shelford, Marshes pp. 83-111.

The tradition and counter traditions

• The Organic revolt against laissez-faire: John Wesley Powell,

French ideas of laissez faire, to allow to make or do without interference.

Powell's irrigation survey and vision. 1874-1888

Ellet, Marsh, and Powell; all see the delusions in ideas.

More details of the conflict

Reisner pp. 1-51.

Thomas Moran'

Mumford vs. DuBois dual versions of the nation's broken promise The Souls of Black Folks, 4-7.

See Second summary page on Lewis Mumford and interpreting the American landscape

  • 1832, Catlin, proposed a park
  • 1855, Olmsted: Central park NYC
  • 1864, Olmsted: Yosemite park
  • 1864, George Marsh Man & Nature
  • 1869, Powell down the Grand Canyon
  • 1871 US Fish Commission
  • 1872, Yellowstone
  • 1872, Arbor day
  • 1872, Powell's Arid Regions plan
  • 1882, Forestry division
  • 1885, NY; Adirondack preserve
  • 1888, Powell's Irrigation Survey
  • 1891, Forest Reserves
  • 1892, Great Depression
  • 1900, Lacey Act
  • 1901, Newland's Act
  • 1908, Grand Canyon monument
  • 1909, Pinchot-Ballinger rift
  • 1911, Weeks Act, forests
  • 1916, National Park Service
  • 1920, National Water Power Act
inked page  
Old Faithful, Yellowstone.  
What is worth protecting in America for the future?