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A model of the Earth's many geographical forms made to scale with respect to the percent of the land they occupy.
But that microcosm is strange indeed!
There are 61 subatomic particles (fermions, leptons, bosons) including the higgson (Higgs boson).
Once hypothesized as the smallest pieces of matter, discoveries of radiation, electrons, and electromagnetic fields in the late nineteenth century revealed atoms to be just a marker on the way to ever diminishing sized sub-atomic and virtual particles.
Atoms together form compounds and molecules.
Paradox of the quantum mechanical scale and the uncertainty principle:
"spin angular momentum" ( Gell-Mann, 196 )
A moving electron animation.
The energy that an electron gains from an electric field of one volt is known as an electron volt
Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time, pp. 65-66.
electron has a spin of 1/2
every particle has a spin and when this one spins twice around it looks again the same as it did at the start of the twin revolutions; it also has a mass of one and a negative electrical charge.
If one electron moves past another, real photons may be given off, which we detect as light-waves.
(Hawking, A Brief History of Time, page 69.)
Spin really gives rise to magnetic attraction which is inversely related to electrical repulsion.
"Spin is intrinsic to the concept of particle, and if the mass of the neutrino is indeed zero, its spin and its constant undeviating velocity of light combine to give it a unique new attribute called chirality."
(Lederman, The God Particle, p. 344)
"This forever ties the direction of spin (clockwise or counterclockwise) to the direction of motion. It can have right handed chirality, meaning that it advances with clockwise spin, or it can be left-handed , advancing with counterclockwise spin."
"One can’t help being impressed by the sequence of "seeds within seeds.’ The molecule is made of atoms. The core of the atom is the nucleus. The nucleus is made of protons and neutrons. The proton and the neutron are made of quarks. The quarks are made of . . . whoops, hold it. The quarks can’t be broken down, we think, but of course we are not sure."
(Lederman, page 209)
"Another way of thinking about these things is to imagine that all of space, even empty space, is awash with particles, that nature in her infinite wisdom can provide.
The particles,. . . are all temporary. They are created and then quickly disappear --- a bazaar of seething activity."
(Lederman, page 211)
I. I. Rabi : "Spin is a very slippery thing."
we trap a muon in an orbit in a magnetic field. The orbiting charge is
also a magnet with a g-value, which Maxwell’s theory says is precisely
2, whereas the spin related magnet his minuscule excess above 2. So the
muon has two different ‘magnets’: one internal the other external (its
"spin is a property possessed by nearly all subatomic particles, most notably electrons and quarks. . . . to make sense of such a picture (the electron, as a tiny ball revolving about an axis) the axis of spin must point along some direction. . . . physicists have long accepted that the spin of a particle will always be found to point along whichever axis is chosen by the experimenter as his reference."
Davies, Superforce, (page 32)
"The subject of particle spin contains many other surprises."
if rotated behave curiously; a 360 degrees of rotation does not account
for a "complete" rotation for an electron
"From a distance, however, this subtlety is not apparent. "
Quarks are thought to be trapped in subatomic particles.
"With the eventual discovery of W and Z particles in 1983, the Weinberg-Salam theory [1967 assumption called "spontaneous symmetry breaking"] was triumphantly confirmed. No longer was it necessary to talk of four fundamental forces. The superficially separate electromagnetic and weak forces were seen to be merely two components of a single electro weak force."
(Davies, Superforce, p. 124)
"In this weak force process a neutron (n ) encounters a neutrino (ve ), and they transmute into a proton (P ) and an electron (e- ). Careful examination reveals that this effect is produced by the exchange of a heavy, charged messenger particle (W- ) from the neutron to the neutrino.
The W- brings about the transmutation of a neutron into a proton by changing the flavor of one of its quarks from the down (d) to the up (u)at the instant of its emission."
( Figure 17. Page 119)