humanity were to replace the free services of the natural
economy with substitutes of its own manufacture, the global GNP would
have to be raised by at least $33 trillion.
types of accounting for ecological impacts:
cost | Net cost | Assimilative
cost accounting – include
what the true or actual costs are in terms of externalities,
as: calculate common health and environmental
in the opportunity costs (what do you give
up for this investment)
the expenses over the full life of the product; Life cycle accounting.
energy accounting – considers,
by calculating the costs, or expenses involved in:
any fuel [energy] source,
up after the combustion
the ability of the resource site to absorb the impact without
the cost of restoring damaged, degraded, or destroyed water, air
or land resources.
Catskill Mountain watershed is worth $6 to $8 billion to New York
City for drinking water
National expense Accounting