Z-A contents of
laws of Ecology are based on the laws of thermodynamics.
has to go somewhere.
So there is no away
to throw to!
can never merely do one thing.
So every action has
an equal and opposite reaction!
is a paradox about free lunches; although there is no such
thing as a free lunch, our earth in this universe may be the ultimate
So, there are ecological consequences on earth that limit what people can achieve over time.
A pine forest living today is the descendent of vegetative associations thta may have been selected for by the grazing habits of dinosaurs, millions of years ago [coeveolution].
The three laws of thermodynamics are:
- The amount of energy in the universe (a closed system) is constant.
conversion or transformation of energy (decay of order) from one form into another is always inefficient because
it is accompanied by increased randomness, we call this increasing disorder,
and in terms of energy that amount
of random, disorder is measured as heat.
- The eventual heat death of the universe occurs because, as energy is transformed,
heat accumulates until every conversion finally produces more heat or
infrared radiation of such a low frequency and long waves, too disorderly
to do any work.
thought, development of
values inhering in land
community is called a biocenose
wealth of habitats, or settings
Symbiotic associations are common.
A unifying science of the earth
The Dominant Animal
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