Four Aristotelian causes
"explanatory conditions & factors"
The 4 causes:
|formal||final, or teleological|
Aristotle, Physics, (350 BCE.).
What is a characteristic of real things?
the apparent property or external quality displayed;
an actual shape, texture, extension, hue, appearance.
A pattern taken or given by things in our sensory experience.
quartz crystals have a geometrical shape
water molecules have an hexagonal appearance
marble has a sinuous quality
form and matter exist concurrently in all things
marble in the statue of Michelangelo's "David."
matter represents the unchanging consistency beneath the changing form. i.e.
caterpillars metamorphose into a butterflies
crabs molt and shed their shells (carapace)
snakes shed their skin
tadpoles develop into frogs
warmth & moisture
that which moves matter and form to undergo visible changes:
the sculptor of a statue or creator of an art work
cold air that turns the leaves of deciduous trees from green
molten lava that cools into igneous rock
rain water forming carbonic acid that breaks down rocks
hormones that release eggs from a mammal's ovaries
elements that remain behind after the alteration are
final, or teleology
purpose, end, or aim
orderly universe, with ordered certainty
things develop toward ends determined by their natures
apprehended by human reason (experience & rationality)
sensible qualities are the building blocks of reality whose purpose is to strive to attain the "good" or optimal character
the all pervading character of the unstable conditions
4 causes: formal | material | efficient | teleology
Aristotle on women
method | methods | matrix | worldview | reason