|Mckibben, Bill. The End of Nature, 1989.|
|Chapter I, pp 3-45.|
|entitled "A New Atmosphere"|
|Chapter II, pp. 47 - 91|
|entitled "The End of Nature"|
Sunset on Sundown Bay, by William T. Ely, 2005.
America ate more food than it grew in 1989
pH and the implications for water, soil bacteria, vegetation, animals & you
oil like coal is a fossil fuel that drives our economies.
5.6 pounds of carbon for every gallon we burn / consume
1957 paper Revelle & Suess
the chemistry of infrared absorption.
"a drag-race that is getting faster all the time,"
deforestation -- wilderness
pasturage for stock
thesis "we have substantially altered the earth's atmosphere."
models, doubling of carbon dioxide from pre-industrial times, & James Hansen
¥ The warming signal was now apparent 1988 drought and 81-83 warm years
George Will on Al Gore as an example of retrograde thinking
1988 problems with 1975 thinking
May 1989 Hansen - Congress round II
more CO-2 means more heat scientifically valid
"accepted scientific wisdom"
Potential feedbacks are:
trees die / climate warming -- even insect infestations Woodwhell -- nuanced signs
dead trees release carbon
1964-1979 1/2 Vermont red spruce trees were dead
8% of all German forests damaged
pH of normal rainfall plummeted American West and China
Ozone loss and the meaning for ultraviolet radiation impacting photo-sensitive
Lovelock and the Gaia -- self-regulating
compare to Nash nature as self willed.
1985 Vienna Convention
"staggering" effects of CO2 and Ozone hole -- on the planet
Chapter II pp. 47 - 91
An Adirondack Mountain Stream, by Ms. M. Dearmas, 2006.
"The End of Nature"
The sound of the chain saw breaks the silence of the woodlands...
"Ébut it does drive away the feeling that you are in another, separate timeless, wild sphere."
We have changed the atmosphere, and that will change the weather."
"and a walk in the woods will be changed."
"An idea, a relationship, can go extinct, just like an animal or a plant."
"it turned out that the carbon dioxide...we were producing in our pursuit of a better life....
could change the patterns of moisture and dryness, breed storms in new places, breed deserts."
"...but the meaning has already changed.
The argument that nature has ended is complex;
Bartram found vigorous beauty,
Paul Brooks Speaking for Nature, wilderness had a negative imagery until 1800s
Such Visions of the world as it existed outside of human history became scarcer with each year that passed.
Bob Marshall 1930s
"Marshall was very near the last to see surrounding unpolluted even by the knowledge that someone had been there before."
"But still we feel the need for pristine places, places substantially unaltered by man."
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is ANWR
'deep-rooted desire for pristine places is the decision...to legislate 'wilderness'
"life ... untrammeled by man"
"not easy to segregate wilderness" – large tracts of land remote and unadulterated
"This idea of Nature is hardy"
"But now the basis of that faith is lost."
In the far reaches of the arctic "what its supposed to be , or whether , thanks to the extra carbon dioxide, you are standing in the equivalent of a heated room."
"but he won't ever see a natural stream."
"Not man! Nature!
"spoiled by the maggots that work in the mind"
E.B.White on Gardens and nuclear fallout in the 1960s
62 (53 class edition)
"Thoreau, complaining about the logging that eventually destroyed...hide its nakedness" from deforestation 1840s-50s
"first huge rupture in the globe's history"
|Part I||The Present|
|Part II||The Near Future|