Water sources, for urbanization:

Water Tunnel # 3 in New York City


The water tunnel has been under construction since 1970


“...forested watersheds capture rainwater and purify it before returning it by gradual runoffs to the lakes and the sea, all for free,”

The value of the Catskill Mountains’ watershed to the city of New York, for drinking water alone, is over $10 billion, since to replace the natural recharge area of the land, requires that monetary amount to clean up septic tank wastes, farm runoff and deforestation.

Edward O. Wilson, (2000), pp., 106-108.

The New York City aqueduct is a gravity fed system, until it gets to the city (sea level) where electrity is used to pump water through the city.

The importance of surrounding lands and their meaning to the watershed.