What is the value of any particular place?

 

What makes any plot of ground worth something?

 

      water

      energy

      air

      landscape terrain

 

Drawn as we are to familiar places what is it that attracts our attention to a piece of terrain?

 

Tidal marshes and estuaries

 

"salt and fresh water flow together in tidal marshes"

 

rivers,

watershed

drainage basin

 

the mouth of the river where it meets the sea is a special place

 

  physically

  biologically

  socially

  synergy the total impacts is far greater than the mere sum of the parts.

 

 

http://myweb.rollins.edu/jsiry/SiryBookOverview.html

border of the land and the sea

 

Oceans and continents meet in watersheds -- the drainage of surface and underground water into the marine

 

transformation of borders

            agriculture

            mining

            technology and policy

 

Commercial and agrarian values in conflicts

            predictive capacity of ecology to discern a measure of production

                        1. in fisheries science

                        2 on land, or agronomy

Struggle led to discoveries                        -intensified conflicts -->      meaning of coevolved diversity

Where

organic life adjusted

coastal water bodies

Bays

3

shore wetlands submerged and &causes for

integral parts

a raid change in attitudes about worth

4

estuarine systems

            macro            the Hudson Valley Adirondack mountain relations

            micro-- the contours of upper and lower New York Bay

food production

fisheries

ebb ad flood of the tides

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extent of marshes and flats in a river mouth

natural resource use and conflicts revealed in this history of exploit and settle

navigation --trade, commerce, exchange and transport

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the distinction between conservation and preservation

Conservation is development for future use

equating renaissance use and beauty

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Clarence Glacken -- Traces on the Rhodian Shore

conflicts over proper development

recreation is also subject to conflicts

ecological approach 1: systematic organization

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Ecology provides an explanation -- role in nature is ecological approach 2

The Estuarine preservation ideal emerged

the biotic health of the environment

wetland ecology was a slow accumulation of awareness, measure and policy failures

a progression in ideas       historic patterns of land use

                                                contours of the land

                                                shaping policies due to catastrophes

conversion of landscape is cultural landscape

            economics

            technical skills

            population

            geography

            desire

hunting versus navigation

Roman jurisprudence

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public access - commons = public trust

stewardship of wildlife resources

colonial - pre-industrial phase

population change

second industrial transformation

agrarian to industrial values brought a sentiment change

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navigation and reclamation take precedence

Swamplands Acts

Civil War and technology

1900s fisheries wildlife protection dawn

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general tax revenues funded dredge, fill, levees and drainage

Progressive conservation (third phase)

comprehensive riverine management

1930s-40s a new quantitative analysis -- Tansely on ecological systems / ecossyetm

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energy from the sun and oceans converted into food by photosynthesis

                                    food

                                    agricultural products

cohesive science

Odum

ecologists

weak spot in Progressive ideas   agricultural surplus + drainage = oversupply

industrial land and water use noticeably degraded estuarine qualities

1950s and 60s

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National Estuary Protection Act -1968     Coastal Zone Management Act, 1972

NEPA 1969

Protection brought with it problems and conflicts persisted

                        national versus state

                        state versus local control

Army Corps of Engineers

US Fish and Wildlife Service

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intractable conflicts

predictive capacity of ecology to discern / ascertain / determine worth

keener understanding of food web dynamics and thermodynamic loss

Coevolved diversity

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Still the public interest

 "Throughout the nation today a series of state and federal estuarine refuges exist as quiet testimony to the ideals, efforts and commitment of local conservation groups, planners, engineers, and scientists. These advocates possess a resolute maturity in asserting that some places must be set aside for future generations because, as Rachel Carson once remarked, 'man's way is not always the best.' "

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