Lesson 13: 我认识了一个漂亮的姑娘

  1. I.Grammar

  2. 1.The Particle “

  3. a.The particle “了” can be used after a verb to indicate realization or completion of an action. Comparison:

  4. - 你买了几个苹果? (How many apples did you buy?  Or, how many apples have you bought?)

  5. - 你买几个苹果? (How many apples are you going to buy? or, how many apples you're buying?)

  6. - 我们吃了烤鸭。(We have eaten roast duck)

  7. - 我们吃烤鸭。(We are going to eat roast duck.  Or, we're going to eat roast duck)

  8. b.The negative form of this kind of sentence is to put “” or “没有before the verb.  Note: do not use with the verb.  Examples:

  9. 我没买苹果。(I didn’t buy apples).  我没买苹果 (WRONG)

  10. 我们没吃烤鸭。(We didn’t eat roast duck)

  11. c.The VA/-not-VA form is “V+()+V” or “V+了没有” or “V++O+没有”  Examples:

  12. 买没买苹果? or 你买了苹果没有? (Did you buy apples or not?)

  13. 你们吃没吃烤鸭? or 你们烤鸭了没有? (Did you eat roast duck or not?)

  14. 2.Pivotal sentences (with “” “”)

  15. a.The pivotal sentence is a sentence with a verbal predicate.  In such a structure, the object of the first verb is the subject of the second verb.  The first verb should be a verb with a meaning of “making,” “letting” or “ordering” somebody to do something.  Examples:

  16. 宋华 (subject) 让 (verb 1) 陆雨平 (object 1/subject 2) 来帮助 (verb 2) 他们 (object 2).  Song Hua let/asked Lu Yuping help them.

  17. 宋华请陆雨平来帮助他们。Song Hua asked Lu Yuping to help them.

  18. 妈妈 (subject) (verb 1) 她 (object 2/subject 2) 喝 (verb 2) 酒 (object 2).  Mom does not allow her to drink liquor.

  19. 3.Sentences with an optative verb (“可能” “”)

  20. a.“可能” and “会” can be used as an optative verb to express possibility:

  21. 明年八月他可能去上海。"Next year August he will probably go to Shanghai," or "He will probably go to Shanghai next August."

  22. 现在八点,她不可能睡觉。"Now (it’s) eight o’clock, she cannot possibly sleep" (too early to sleep)

  23. 他得了感冒,明天不会来上课。"He got a cold, and tomorrow he will probably not be able to come to the class."