NEW PRACTICAL CHINESE READER

 

Lesson 15: 她去上海了

  1. I.Grammar

  2. 1.The structural particle “” and the complement of state

  3. a.In Chinese, the so-called “complement of state” is the one that describes or comments on the achieved state of an action.  It is usually formed by an adjective or an adjectival phrase.  The particle “得” is often used in such a structure, which must be placed between the verb and the complement of state.  Note its placement in the affirmative, negative, and the V/A-not-V/A question forms:

  4. 她来很早 (She came very early)

  5. 他休息不好 (He didn’t rest well)

  6. 大为(说)汉语说得怎么样? (How is Dawei’s spoken Chinese?) – Note the first verb “说” can be omitted if there is an object (e.g., 汉语) immediately after the verb (e.g., 说).

  7. 上海发展得快不快? (Does Shanghai develop fast (or not)?)

  8. 2.Particle “” as an indication of confirming the completion /realization of an action:

  9. a.The particle “了” can follow a verb to denote the completion or realization of an action (which is usually placed at the end of a sentence).   When present, the particle “了” indicates that action has taken place in the past.  To negate a sentence with the particle “了”, place the adverb “()” rather than “” before the verb and omit” from the end of the sentence.  The following are some examples (note its negative and V/A-not-V/A question forms):

  10. 我去上海 (I went to Shanghai. Or I have gone to Shanghai)

  11. 没有去上海 (I didn’t go to Shanghai.  Or I haven’t gone to Shanghai)

  12. 你去上海了吗? Or 你去没去上海?  Or 你上海了没有(Did you go to Shanghai?  Or Have you gone to Shanghai?)

  13. b.Compare the sentences with and without “了” (An action is going to take place vs. an action has taken place):

  14. A. 你去哪儿? (Where are you going?)  B. 你去哪儿? (Where have you been?  Or Where did you go?)

  15. A. 你买什么?  (What are you going to buy?).  B. 你买什么? (What have you bought?  Or What did you buy?)

  16. 3.Reduplication of the verb

  17. a.In Chinese, reduplicating a verb has the functions of: 1) implying a short duration for that action; and 2) the idea of giving something a try (similar to adding “一下” to the verb).  Here are some examples of the reduplication of the verb:

  18. AA” form: 看看 (take a look), 说说 (have a talk)

  19. AA” form: 看一看 (take a look), 等一等 (wait a second)

  20. ABAB” form: 介绍介绍 (make an introduction), 认识认识 (get acquainted)


课文


(一)

林娜:力波,你来得真早

丁力波:刚才银行人少,不用排队。林娜,你今天穿得很漂亮啊。

林娜:是吗?我来银行换钱,下午我还要去王府井买东西。

丁力波:今天一英镑换多少人民币?

林娜:一英镑换十一块五毛七分人民币。明天我要去上海旅行,用人民币。

丁力波:什么?明天你要去上海吗?你刚从西安回北京,你真喜欢旅行!在西 

         安玩儿得好不好?

林娜:我玩儿得非常好。

丁力波:吃得怎么样?

林娜:吃得还可以。这次住得不太好。

丁力波:你参观兵马俑了没有

林娜:我参观兵马俑。我还买了很多明信片,你到我那儿去看看吧。

丁力波:好啊。我也很想去西安旅行,你给我介绍介绍吧。看,该你了

林娜:小姐,我想用英镑换人民币。这是五百英镑。

工作人员:好,给您五千七百八十五块人民币。请数一数。


(二)

马大为:林娜,早!好久不见,你回英国了吗?

林娜:我没有回英国,我上海。昨天刚回北京。

马大为:刚才宋华来了,他也问我,林娜哪儿

林娜:我宋华,他怎么不知道?他现在在哪儿?

马大为:他回宿舍了。上海怎么样?听说这两年上海发展得非常快,是不是?

林娜:是啊,上海很大,也非常漂亮。那儿银行多,商场也多,我很喜欢上海。

马大为:上海东西贵不贵?

林娜:东西不太贵。上海人做衣服做得很好,我买了很多件。

马大为:上海人喜欢说上海话,他们普通话说得怎么样?

林娜:他们普通话说得很好,年轻人英语也说得很流利。

马大为:你学没学上海话?

林娜:学了。我会说"阿拉勿懂"。

马大为:你说什么?我不懂。

林娜:这就是上海话的"我不懂"。