3课: 她是哪国人?

  1. I.Pronunciation/Phonetics

  2. 1.New initials: zh [merger] (unaspirated); ch [nurture] (aspirated); sh [shirt] (aspirated); r [right]

  3. 2.New finals: ai ["eye" but lighter], uai [wye], ong [own]

  4. 3.Initial i: “i” in “zhi”, “chi”, “shi”, andriis pronounced differently from the regular final “i” in “li”, “ni”, or “mi”.  It pronounced like a “r” [shr, chr, zhr]

  5. 4.Third-tone sandhi. When followed by a first, second or fourth tone, or most neutral syllables, a third tone becomes a half third tone.  Examples:

  6. nǐ gēge becomes ni gēge (你哥哥)

  7. wǒ yào to wo yào (我要)

  8. nǐ máng ma? to ni máng ma? (你忙吗)

  9. Note: this so-called "third-tone sandhi" does not effect the third-tone syllable at the end of a phrase or sentence.  Example: Tāmen dōu hǎo (他们都好).  So in this case, "hǎo” is not a 'third-tone sandhi"

  10. 5.Tone sandhi of “”. “不” is a fourth tone syllable by itself.  But it becomes a second tone when followed by fourth tone.  Examples:

  11. shì (不是) becomes shì

  12. yào to yào (不要)

  1. II.Usage

  2. 1."nin" (您) is the polite form of “你” usually referring to an elderly or a senior person or to a person when speaking on a formal occasion

  3. 2.References of grandparents: “爷爷” (yéye) – grandpa of father side; “外公” (wài gōng) – grandpa of mother side; “奶奶” (nǎinai) – grandma of father side; “外婆” (wài pó) – grandma of mother side