I. ERNST MAYR (from This Is Biology)


  1. Evolved programs
  2. Chemical properties
  3. Regulatory mechanisms
  4. Organization
  5. Teleonomic (adapted) systems
  6. Limited order of magnitude
  7. Life cycle
  8. Open systems


Non living organisms lack:

A capacity for evolution

A capacity for self-replication

A capacity for growth and differentiation (a genetic program)

A capacity for self-regulation

A capacity for response to the environment (sense organs)

A capacity for change (at level of phenotype and genotype)



II. NEIL CAMPBELL (from Biology)


  1. Order
  2. Reproduction
  3. Growth and Development
  4. Energy utilization
  5. Response to the environment
  6. Homeostasis
  7. Evolutionary adaptation