What is justice?
an inherent appetite for equitable relations
pledge " with liberty and justice for all."
ecological justice is the inalienable right of all people to have clean, healthy, secure access to water, air and other resources, recreation, environmental health, and pollution free fisheries and wildlife."
Derivation of justice
The GREEK word DIKE or dike meaning compensatory; inherently meaning the process by which in transgressing some limitation amends is made or must be made for social comity -- or a level of polite discourse.
From Homeric to Classical and Platonic Greece the term originated, matured and created a debate.
St. Augustine and the City of God -- Civitas Dei
Natural law and St. Thomas Aquinas.
Hugo Grotius and "the Law of Nations" .
Galileo, Hobbes and Newton
John Locke and property
Jean Jacques Rousseau and the social will
Denis Diderot, universality of knowledge and "sensibilite'"
||personal, private property||Corporate, private property|
||individual expense||factory externality|
Pollution is any substance whose toxicity or potential excess can interfere with life sustaining processes, such as ecosystem services, or biological and geochemical cycles, or pose a risk to human health.
Photographed at the end of the 19th century by Jacob Riis, scenes like this in Manhattan are said to have shamed people into eradicating slums in America's premier and largest city.
Analogies can help us think differently about familiar things; and reconsider parts we overlook.
By analogy the steamship (lifeboat ethics) is the earth -- one planet indivisible.
"Titanic" -- was a ship that sunk in 1905 with many of its crew and passengers on board.
Thus, the titanic effect is that we assume security or safety when in reality every step we take exposes us to greater risk of disaster, or needless (preventable) loss of life.
Life boats -- there were not a sufficient number of life boats on the Titanic.
The life boats were not immediately loaded and dispatched since the assumption was that the ship could not sink.
The signals of disaster are by analogy, ignored, because of other -- often overriding concepts of circumstances.
„ Spaceship analogy: R. Buckminster Fuller (1963) was that we are all passengers on the same small craft traveling safely through harsh space only so long as we take care to provision the ship and maintain its life-support systems.
„ "X-Files" as the unaccounted for parts of reality.
„ Hale Bop comet: a celestial event seen in the sky that some people took as a sign of the world's ending.
Sample related concepts to justice:
"j euż st __ iss"
Two: First ____ Second
1. reasonable behavior or respectable treatment: a concern for fairness, peace, and genuine respect for all other people's lives and liberties.
„ comity -- considerate behavior of others
„ impartiality of public treatment with respect to a person's condition
„ ( Justice) the personification of justice, usually a blindfolded woman holding scales and a sword -- icon; the statue on top of the US Capitol building in Washington D.C.
Select the map to enlarge and see per pupil spending in each US county.
2. a judge or magistrate, in particular a judge of the supreme court of a country or state.
image arises when you consider the meaning of these
There is an implication in these uses of the word justice of limitations, boundaries or thresholds of accepted behavior.
The Greeks had in mind during their golden age of Athens that there were laws (NOMOS) that enshrined the ideals of appropriate, fair and impartial behavior due with respect to citizens and slaves alike for which people could be held accountable.
The transgression of these boundaries, in terms of traditions, folkways, or mores, had always entailed social ostracism or punishment that may include restitution. As the law became established to assure the continuity of transactions in a commercial culture, retribution and restitution became part of the means by which those who broke the law would be asked to make good on their mistakes.
Historically significant dates:
1531 able-bodied men are forbidden to beg in England
1770 Samuel Johnson's commentary on the poverty
1786 Joseph Townsend's Dissertation on the Poor laws
1798 Thomas Malthus "Essay on Population"
1846 F. M. Dostoevsky's novel Poor Folk
1872 Henry George, reformer, Progress & Poverty
1892 Coxey's Army (indigent Civil War veterans) marches on Washington
1932 Upton Sinclair's "End Poverty in California" EPIC
1967 Houston "race" riot over garbage dump death
1968 M. L. King's memoriam -- "Poor People's March"
2008 Barak Obama elected US president, the first person of African & American ancestry
Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death.
Overseas, or Foreign Press a sampling
Three contemporary virtues are: