What is justice?

Social Justice

• an inherent appetite for equitable relations

• pledge "…with liberty and justice for all."

ecological justice is the inalienable right of all people to have clean, healthy, secure access to water, air and other resources, recreation, environmental health, and pollution free fisheries and wildlife."

Origins of just | debatable examples | Jacob Riis' photos | Dates are key | Readings | key words | know | Ecological justice education

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justice

Derivation of justice

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Ancient

The GREEK word DIKE or dike meaning compensatory; inherently meaning the process by which in transgressing some limitation amends is made or must be made for social comity -- or a level of polite discourse.

From Homeric to Classical and Platonic Greece the term originated, matured and created a debate.

Mediaeval

St. Augustine and the City of God -- Civitas Dei

Natural law and St. Thomas Aquinas.

Hugo Grotius and "the Law of Nations" .

Modern

Galileo, Hobbes and Newton

John Locke and property

Jean Jacques Rousseau and the social will

Denis Diderot, universality of knowledge and "sensibilite'"

Thomas Paine

Corporate responsibility.

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Origins of the idea | Examples to debate | Jacob Riis' photographs | Dates in history | Readings | related words | course to know

 

Currently

The double "P", double "C" game

property rights

a.
I Them
b.
personal, private property Corporate, private property
c.
individual expense factory externality

Pollution is any substance whose toxicity or potential excess can interfere with life sustaining processes, such as ecosystem services, or biological and geochemical cycles, or pose a risk to human health.

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Jacob Riis

Photographed at the end of the 19th century by Jacob Riis, scenes like this in Manhattan are said to have shamed people into eradicating slums in America's premier and largest city.

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Origins of the idea | Examples to debate | Jacob Riis' photographs | Dates in history | Readings | related words | course to know

 

Analogies can help us think differently about familiar things; and reconsider parts we overlook.

Steamship -- a spacious means of ocean transport on which large numbers, in different classes, travel together from point to point on their way to a common destination.

By analogy the steamship (lifeboat ethics) is the earth -- one planet indivisible.

"Titanic" -- was a ship that sunk in 1905 with many of its crew and passengers on board.

Thus, the titanic effect is that we assume security or safety when in reality every step we take exposes us to greater risk of disaster, or needless (preventable) loss of life.

Life boats -- there were not a sufficient number of life boats on the Titanic.

The life boats were not immediately loaded and dispatched since the assumption was that the ship could not sink.

The signals of disaster are by analogy, ignored, because of other -- often overriding concepts of circumstances.

Spaceship analogy: R. Buckminster Fuller (1963) was that we are all passengers on the same small craft traveling safely through harsh space only so long as we take care to provision the ship and maintain its life-support systems.   

"X-Files" as the unaccounted for parts of reality.

Hale Bop comet: a celestial event seen in the sky that some people took as a sign of the world's ending.

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Origins of the idea | Examples to debate | Jacob Riis' photographs | Dates in history | Readings | related words | course to know

 

Sample related concepts to justice:

inequality of

            wealth (savings & capital) vs. income (labor, wages, dividends, earnings)

equal opportunity

homelessness

legal proscription & protection vs moral indignity

Thoreau

All important dates in the past.

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Origins of the idea | Examples to debate | Jacob Riis' photographs | Dates in history | Readings | related words | course to know

bannerFarm Workers.

Global Warming.

Water for some or all?

Education as a dream of access to knowledge for all.

 

Readings

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Origins of the idea | Examples to debate | Jacob Riis' photographs | Dates in history | Readings | related words | course to know

 

justice

question

"j euż st __ iss"

Two: First ____ Second

two syllables


noun


1. reasonable behavior or respectable treatment: a concern for fairness, peace, and genuine respect for all other people's lives and liberties.

„ the quality of being fair and reasonable : the justice of this case.
„ The administration of the law or authority in maintaining this legally assured status: a tragic miscarriage of justice.
scales

comity -- considerate behavior of others

„ impartiality of public treatment with respect to a person's condition
„ ( Justice) the personification of justice, usually a blindfolded woman holding scales and a sword -- icon; the statue on top of the US Capitol building in Washington D.C.

DC Select the map to enlarge and see per pupil spending in each US county.


2. a judge or magistrate, in particular a judge of the supreme court of a country or state.

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A question ?

What image arises when you consider the meaning of these
PHRASES
:

Why?

There is an implication in these uses of the word justice of limitations, boundaries or thresholds of accepted behavior.

The Greeks had in mind during their golden age of Athens that there were laws (NOMOS) that enshrined the ideals of appropriate, fair and impartial behavior due with respect to citizens and slaves alike for which people could be held accountable.

The transgression of these boundaries, in terms of traditions, folkways, or mores, had always entailed social ostracism or punishment that may include restitution. As the law became established to assure the continuity of transactions in a commercial culture, retribution and restitution became part of the means by which those who broke the law would be asked to make good on their mistakes.

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Origins of the idea | Examples to debate | Jacob Riis' photographs | Dates in history | Readings | related words | course to know

 

Historically significant dates:

1531   able-bodied men are forbidden to beg in England

1770   Samuel Johnson's commentary on the poverty

1786   Joseph Townsend's Dissertation on the Poor laws

1798   Thomas Malthus "Essay on Population"

1846   F. M. Dostoevsky's novel Poor Folk

1872   Henry George, reformer,  Progress & Poverty

1892   Coxey's Army (indigent Civil War veterans) marches on Washington

1932   Upton Sinclair's "End Poverty in California" EPIC

1936   James Agee & Walker Evans' Alabama photo essay

1967   Houston "race" riot over garbage dump death

1968   M. L. King's memoriam -- "Poor People's March"

2008   Barak Obama elected US president, the first person of African & American ancestry

 

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Origins of the idea | Examples to debate | Jacob Riis' photographs | Dates in history | Readings | related words | course to know

book

Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others
This was her last book, published in 2003 before her death in 2004.

Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death.

Stephen J. Rose

Kathleen Parker on what constitutes news in the age of the Internet: 8-1-08

Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, Walker Evans and James Agee, 1941.

Overseas, or Foreign Press a sampling

USA print media, daily newspapers

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Origins of the idea | Examples to debate | Jacob Riis' photographs | Dates in history | Readings | related words | course to know

 

Three contemporary virtues are:

Justice, liberality, and mercy.

Taking action

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