Writing Longer Essays


For every paragraph of your essay write a sentence to describe its point.
sentence paragraphs
paragraph This should capture its– ¶ –meaning Speed read longer paragraphs & outline the main points
# focus of the paragraph
How are these blocks of sentences coherent?
For example:
subject body of an essay or research paper
1 Thesis: pollution, population, and growth of consumption are altering planetary conditions while challenging widespread beliefs because we cannot see, ignore the signals, and have no effective, coherent and emotionally healthy mind-set to motivate actions. In the present debate over precise causes of abrupt climate change, where fragmented approaches to understanding enough information to both mitigate and adapt to excessive swings in drought and rainfall patterns due to global warming prejudices predominate. Critics charge that the facts are wrong, or if not in error, they are irrelevant to facing the problems confronting our economic and spiritual plight. Among the examples that abound, people are encouraged to consume at a very time when scarcity and uncertainty have placed the sources of our consumption in peril–such as with food and fishery production–or raised the cost of our acquiring further materials–as is the case with fuels. In such a situation, the ancient ideas from Hippocrates may seem remote but can be a means of actually seeing connections among fragmented clues as to our condition. Currently, in a badly divided public, political and scientific sphere of communications, we have lost the authority of contemporary guides we once used to arrive at this civilized and highly interdependent state of affairs. This divisively imprecise forum is precisely where the sphere of discourse to encourage better decisions must occur soon to avoid serious losses of human social and natural capital. No matter how swiftly rising pollution levels trigger global warming to trump other social problems that stem from ecological matters, the solutions to global warming reveal wide disagreements based on fractured, yet internally coherent rationales.
2 The problem cited, described & disputed.

Andrea Merkel, German Chancellor, called it too late to stop global global warming or climate chaos because the industrialized nations' increasing rate of heat trapping gas emissions has further accelerated. As Bill Mckibben commented nearly two decades ago that humans have developed the capacity to alter the atmosphere thereby affecting all natural weathering and reproductive processes on earth. More significantly past climate variations no longer provide reliable predictive patterns for our future because automated pollution has been so prolonged, so pervasive and so decisive in altering the oceans, forests and climate that we are on unknown ground. Yet, current poling shows a decline in the US public understanding of global warming just as the scientific consensus is becoming more contentious. Princeton physicist Freeman Dyson warns that "Unfortunately, some members of the environmental movement have adopted as an article of faith the belief that global warming is the greatest threat to the ecology of our planet." (6-12-08, NYRB, 45) It is, he insists, for that reason "the arguments about global warming have become bitter and passionate." Other critics such as Ross Gelbspan, a pulitzer prize winning journalist, instead, insists that corporate advertising and cheap–subsidized fuels feeding an aging infrastructure- trap people and institutions into self-abusive behavior. Economists on the other hand argue that we have in place perverse incentives that make the very behavior the causes or exacerbates a the problem the path of least resistance. So we are lost in the rhetoric of inaction awaiting a Godot to reassure us in keeping our worn out assumptions.


3 Hippocratic Corpus was made of related & self-supportive concepts

In the sense of Hippocrates, the ancient Greek writer, we have significantly heated the airs, acidified the waters and altered places by removing necessary vegetative cover. Airs, waters, and places were once the province of forces beyond human influence and technical control. Any physician, according to Hippocrates had to know about these natural conditions to better understand situations in which diseases due to climate, pests, or water sources spread among people whose health doctors sought to restore.


4 New vision must reveal the functional necessity of native elements in places.

Today the conceptual triad from the Hippocratic Corpus provides an opportunity for us to understand the threat rapid accumulation of natural carbon in airs and waters to places. The earth until recently has been a rather abstract concept that most people fail to grasp in its entirety. The triad may reveal how --by treating this waste gas as a commodity-- the inherent natural assets of wildlife, forests, even water bodies take on an economic importance closely linked to their native condition that is not now apparent. Airs and waters are inherently tied into a functional bundle that manifests widespread influence in places on human health in the corpus.

5 Examples of how the coherent vision of the "corpus" ties separate elements together. For example, DDT sprayed in the air, persists chemically resisting degradation as it accumulates in water bodies, the tissues of fish and birds, while it also has been shown to increase the risk of testicular cancer. By using the coherent view exhibited in the corpus the connections among water, air, energy and human livelihoods may become more obvious to a wider audience. In the case of seeing water bodies with this ancient perspective consider the Severn estuary in Britain which has an estimated capacity to generate five percent of the U. K. electricity demands from the river mouth's tidal power. Similarly a forest under the European Union's cap and trade system has value --not as timber or as wildlife sanctuaries-- but a new valuation based on its storage capacity for removing carbon dioxide from the air when it is not cut down. No one invests in tidal power because of the costs with respect to oil and gas and the the fragmentation of nature into disconnected pieces.
6 Rhetorical services of old myths create a narrative Like the old Egyptian story of Osiris, modern automated and energy intensive industry has dismembered the body of nature and severed the air from the water that regulates the atmosphere and sliced the nourishing soil microbes from the air they replenish. The Hippocratic corpus linking the parts as one body serves a rhetorical service in placing the current need for pollution control and sensible energy use into a less complicated context from which new insights about forests, waterways, and biological diversity may arise.
7 Economic and ethical linkage stems from Hippocrates. This old Hippocratic ethic of "do no harm" when tied to a new financial instrument has tremendous importance for water supplies, wildlife habitat and recreational values, not to mention tillage practices, building design and human health. This importance lies in a new valuation --an opportunity under carbon cap and trade system that does not exist otherwise. The peril in making a commodity of our natural resources is a real and present danger to our ethos.
8 The myth is imbued with moral bias Commodities bring with them responsibilities that can easily be overlooked in a narrowed materialistic and product based frame of reference. As instruments of exploitation, commodities according to Marx and others are the problem, not the solution to capitalizing on nature. There is an equal problem in the ancient Hippocratic corpus and its dictum to "do no harm." One might easily suggest that had the writings of Hippocrates been influential there would be no need to revive them, indeed their delusional misunderstood superstitions may have hampered not engendered a more profound ecological understanding of natural places.
9 Is this narrative accurate; if it is needed?  
10 Is morality a hindrance or an assistance?  
11 the facts are incontrovertible

Any profound ecological understanding must comprehend that there are comparatively larger amounts (called ratios) of heavier carbon ions produced only by combustion than there are naturally occurring carbon ions generated by bacterial and plant activity. In addition to the isotopic evidence the decay rates of radioactive carbon support the recent accumulation of "heavy carbon" that is attributed to high energy associated with the explosive power involved in converting of oil, coal, and charcoal fuels into motion.

12 incontrovertible evidence reveals a point of no return is approaching.

Ions don't lie, like tree rings or clam shell growth striations, these accumulated markers indicate we are in the midst of a profound change due to industrial waste accumulating to such an extent that oceans and the atmosphere they stabilize are reaching the saturation point. That refers to the ability of the of the ocean-air conditioning system to maintain long-established conditions. Fierce critics of the global warming argument such as James Lovelock, nonetheless, point accurately to the importance of see this abrupt shift in the planet's thermostat.

13 These data reveal the need to comprehend enough to be able to act and protect, or reduce the risks.

The system of ocean temperature circulation that generates the weather and the amount of trace elements of carbon in the air deserve our attention and closer investigation. The point Lovelock makes is that the earth–like the three bear's porridge choices in the children's story of Goldilocks–persists in three different thermal states. A thermal state is defined as a range of expected temperature variations over the seasons and through the annual pattern of the planet's rotation and revolution about the sun. We have been moving from the coolest thermal balance for millenniums, but are now moving rapidly from the the "just right"–cool to balmy–state to a very different condition. This hotter condition has not been witnessed on Earth by anything human; instead during the Eocene and Paleocene more than sixty million years ago, the very hot thermal state persisted. But there is an additional reason for concern, we are moving quickly–too fast for plants and insects to adjust–from the "just right" to these "too hot" conditions. The pace, the extent and the prolonged impacts are enough to make specialists and reasonable generalists concerned for crops, timber, fisheries and water production to meet growing needs. The risks are real as seen in Sudan and Ethiopia, Pakistan and the Tibetan plateau, Indonesia and Australia, the Andean mountains and the Amazon basin.


14 the risks are all too real to be ignored or denied, but to be misunderstood is folly The new condition for humans is an old situation for some of the planet's vegetation and plant associations, but the soil moisture levels, loss of melt-water from ice and glaciers, and the dust bowl conditions of west Texas reveal the broad risks to food, fiber, fodder and even fuel production. The losses of grains, arable land, livestock and timber are mirrored in wildlife and fishery declines. While consumption has led to shortages the unpredictable quality of recent rainfall, storm, wind, and snowfall patterns leaves many specialists concerned that we are not ready for further disruptions in the amount of water we can anticipate in the future based on past supply levels. Because we rely on less than a hundred species of the thousands of edible plants available, industrial agriculture will soon face what timber manufacturing has already faced, unexpected shortages that raise prices dramatically. WHile sugar cane and sorghum, for example, may adjust well to warmer conditions and grasslands will replace forested slopes many domesticated varieties of crops and animals used for food will go the way of our fisheries. As one film-maker put it with regard to the state of large edible fish, we are at "the end of the line." Here is where the linkage among comprehension, motivation, action and insuring against losses are fused into a failure to thrive based on the reality of the tempest we prompted.
15 the risks are of three sources: evidence of rapid change, 2) fragmented knowledge, 3) perverse incentives for stasis in a dynamic situation. The tempest we are still promoting was prompted by perverse incentives that linger throughout our social, economic and commercial systems of exchange but there are three parts to this tempests or three tempests in a maelstrom of inaction. Initially the shift from Lovelock's just right conditions since the last ice age ended is the initial tempestuous situation because of the unprecedented speed of this ongoing shift that began in the 1880s. The lack of a coherent way to comprehend airs; waters, and places as the ancient Greek physicians to exhorted to do so is the second tempest -- a tempestuous contempt for knowledge, authority, and factual analysis of the conditions we are in is adding to the confused discourse Freeman Dyson despises over global warming driven abrupt climate change. The incentives for denying the factual parts work to hinder the accumulation of these pieces of data into a coherent vision of the consequences of both actions and inaction in the face of global challenges. But the actions required for even seeking shelter from this storm are not embraced for want of a sufficiently motivating narrative to allow actions to overcome incentives in place that promote a belief in stasis when we are actually in a state of increasingly rapid social, economic, and biological re-organizational disturbances.
16 An analogy to clarify the meaning of trilateral tempests of population, consumption and industrial triage. The analogy is that like a blind person refusing to accept a guide dog, society, especially American and European society for different reasons are not prompted to see that wildlife and fisheries are guides to how best to respond to threats that involve our food, fuel, fiber and other supplies. The shift in wildlife migration patterns, the arrival of spring earlier in the northern hemisphere and the melting of Canadian and Siberian arctic permafrost are all clues to a profound need to protect people, if not actually change consumptive patterns of behavior that can exacerbate this accelerated meteorological condition. Without wildlife and fisheries we are blind to the movement of this thermal disruption, this hot beast of the past that has taken up residence again but now in the midst of civilization with all its complex rituals, folkways and incentives to keep people stable despite the turmoil. If the clues cannot be seen as a pattern–a meaningful association of collateral and sustaining concepts–can we expect effective responses to new conditions? There is in any crucial condition such as the refugee camps of Darfur, the flooding in Pakistan, or even the loss of population in New Orleans a tendency to succumb to the despair generated by overwhelming destruction, loss of life and erasure of the familiar landmarks by which we judge how effective our responses need to be to appropriately address the needs of this situation.
17 a last analogy to tie up the parts: Hippocrates, the tempests, and blindness together with wildlife. During the First and Second World Wars no one was conditioned to confront the immensely dehumanizing forces unleashed by industrially driven-civilian targeted warfare. We are similarly ill-equipped, behaviorally poorly conditioned and mentally castrated by fragmented information to motivate a protective response let alone undertake preemptive actions. Like the characters in Camus' The Plague, we are overwhelmed by the contours of an unfamiliar, unmarked, and unforgiving landscape with an unexamined set of cognitive, ethical and behavioral assumptions. This mind set will not stop the cattle from starving in west Texas, or the families in Sudan's refugee camps from dying, but surely blindness is not an excuse to seek guidance. The loss of wildlife, vegetation, and soil are like removing pages from an instructional manual, or maps from a guidebook, or street signs from a highway grid. Without the fisheries and wildlife to examine, test our assumptions, and measure our impacts on this dynamically shifting thermal tsunami we will have swept away far too much of what we need. Among our civilizations' highest achievements is the humane way we treat one another. That ethos now depends on how we care for the animals and plants we co-depend upon for our well-being. Now we must coexist as never before seven billion people, our domesticated menageries and the wild world because we are erasing all the necessarily familiar markers, losing our vision, and as yet unable to embrace the hot night of tomorrow's sweltering winds.
18 Conclusion