The University of Virginia rotunda; built by slave labor but dedicated to intellectual freedom.
“Slavery as an ecological revolution that ignited a national political and moral crisis.”
Nationalism, America as the last great hope of humankind to reform
Ideology, a political faith
Manifest destiny, the Protestant missionary zeal tied to land; Free-soil Party
1828-1858, The road to disunion -- fight over western land and new states.
Even in the East did soil, climate and heritage create two nations or one people?
Nature, 1836, Emerson – “there is naked nature.” (idealism)
Journey in the seaboard slave states – as a reality check—1850s. (realism)
The Mexican War, 1846-48, Lincoln’s objection, Thoreau’s imprisonment, poll tax.
Prelude to disunion
Missouri Compromise of 1820 – extension of the east west boundary
California and the Compromise of 1850 – exception to the 1820 line
The Kansas-Nebraska Act – prairie warfare and the liberal end of compromise
“popular sovereignty” - the Lincoln–Douglas debates; discovery of moral evil.
THE TENSION IN EARLY IDEOLOGY
• Jefferson & Jeffersonian – agrarian laissez faire Jeffersonian democrats
• Hamiltonians & Hamiltonians– commercial laissez nous faire Federalists - Whigs
Jeffersonian's – agrarian laissez faire unregulated state banks, Preemption for squatters on federal land, low tariff to encourage cotton, tobacco, tallow exports, no Supreme Court power over state legislatures.
Hamilton – national bank, commercial credit, navigational improvements–
John Marshall Court (federalist)
Together under the stress of civil war would be born the liberal ideal of the corporate state. (Neo liberalism)
Railroad land grants
Land grant colleges
Department of Agriculture
National Academy of the Sciences -- NAS
Abolition of slavery
14th Amendment – definition of citizenship, equal rights and due process
John Wesley Powell as a Jeffersonian vision & Hamiltonians means – Conservation & reclamation policy
Federalism – the appropriate use of the Public Domain & common property resources
Irrigation Survey of 1888 and the settlement of western timber, mineral and Homestead lands.