Mount Greylock







Mount Greylock, the Berkshires , Mass.


"Now in his heart, Ahab had some glimpse of this, namely: all my means are sane, my motive and my object mad.  

"The White Whale." Herman Melville












What is a theme?

ecological history

Ecosystem complex


Mount Greylock from Bennington, Vermont

Mission & Manifest Destiny in spread of settlement & nationalism

"All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature."

Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature, 1830

  • 1784 Northwest Ordinance -- equity of entry for new states into the Union.
  • 1785 Land Ordinance -- rational distribution and creation of the public domain.
  • 1803 Louisiana Purchase -- implied powers.
  • 1819 Panic in the financial markets led to economic depression.
  • 1820 Missouri Compromise and the spread of slavery across the Mississippi River.
  • 1830s Indian Removal Act forcibly resettled the five tribes to Oklahoma from the SE.
  • 1836 Financial Panic, land sales and defaulted loans cause economic collapse.
  • 1853 William Cullen Bryant's influence in Central Park's creation in New York.
  • 1859 Financial panic caused an economic depression.
  • 1846 Preemption Act -- squatter's rights, the pioneers' advantage.
  • 1864 George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature.
  • 1872 United States Fish Commission established.
  • 1873 Credit Mobiler' scandal a economic depression due to railroad crisis.
  • 1877 Powell's report on the Arid Regions.
  • 1888 Powell's Irrigation Survey.
  • 1890 Forest Reserve Act sets aside timberlands in the public domain.
  • 1892 The great depression of the "Gay Nineties."
  • 1894 Populist revolt from both Democratic and Republican parties, social unrest.
  • 1909 White House sponsored Governor's Conference on Conservation.
  • 1912 Theodore Roosevelt (past President) runs as third party "Progressive."
  • 1914-1918 The Great War in Europe drives up agricultural prices, "war boom."
  • 1916 President Woodrow Wilson supports the creation of the National Park Service."

mission the ideal that new world Protestantism should spread Christ's Gospel

Mexican War fought over the expansion of slavery in the south west as Mexico had freed the slaves

public domain that land in western territories controlled by Congress and largely disposed of by the treasury and later the US land offce and the Department of the Interior.




8         Landscape as artistic subject
9         Transcendentalism -- Emerson

"In enumerating the values of nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant , a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on the human mind, they do not vary the result."

Emerson, NATURE, 1830.

10         Thoreau
11         Slavery
12         PragmatismMumford on Pierce
13         Mumford         —         Urbanism & landscape
14         Reisner         —         Reclamation
15         Mid-term role play: Would you flood the Grand Canyon?