Soil is more than mere dirt!

As an inert substance -- the substrate, or erosiondirt, or ground is formed from the constituent bedrock of a place depending on its distant geological or the recent climatic events.

As a living substance, soil is created by bacteria, fungi and plants in the process of growth and decay. This organic part of the soil is actually living and composed of carbon being degraded by other organisms. The greater the organic matter the richer the soil actually is.


top soil Topsoil is a thin veneer of life.

Together substrate and living soil comprise the life giving foundation of all ecological systems that sustains life, commerce, population, and public health on earth.

Ecosystem services | the value in nature is mostly from soil formation | Leopold's ideas on soil