"Call the cultural constraints ‘trained incapacities,’ thought collectives, 'social constructions of reality.' "

Lynn Margulis, Symbiotic Planet, p. 3.


Gregory Bateson, Mind and Nature, quoted in Lynn Margulis, Symbiotic Planet, p. 51.

“The confusion of the symbol with reality is idolatry, and that is a sin to which we are all prone.… failure to recognize the context within which the metaphors and symbols of science and religion are valid.”

Hanbury Brown, The Wisdom of Science, p. 182.

"For this system of provisional knowledge to work, however, its necessary that, to the extent possible, scientific hypotheses be proposed in such a way that they are at least potentially falsifiable --provable to be wrong."

Ian Tattersall, Monkey in the Mirror, p. 5.

“I have been using the term gene to refer to the original stretch of DNA. But doing so means that we have to give up on the notion, even for structural genes, that one gene makes one enzyme (or protein). One gene can be employed to make many different proteins….Which protein should the gene make, and under what circumstances? And how does it choose?”

Evelyn Fox Keller, The Century of the Gene, 63

"Thanks to our confirmation bias, . . . we look for and find confirmatory evidence for what we already believe and ignore or discount contradictory evidence,"

Michael Shermer, "Why Our Brains Do Not Intuitively Grasp Probabilities,"
Scientific American. September 2, 2008. p. 42.

"Fanaticism consists in redoubling your effort when you have forgotten your aim."
George Santayana, Life of Reason (1905) vol. 1, Introduction

Geertz on ideology