Scientific discoveries

Francis Crick remarked about research into DNA & RNA or alpha helices

"the evidence can be unreliable. . . . use as little of it as you can. . ."

Murray Gell-Mann suggests

"You know, frequently a theorist will even throw out a lot of data on the grounds that if they don't fit an elegant scheme, they're wrong," referring to Messenger RNA and collaborative work."

"as you do the experiments, you do not know what in the result is your artifact, and what is the phenomenon."


"Scientific reasoning is a kind of dialogue between the possible and the actual between what might be and what is in fact the case."

"interactions between hypotheses and the logical expectations they give rise to."       

Judson, 1987, p. 126


Einstein's reflection on the genesis of his ideas. | Tattersall. | Margulis on "trained incapacities". | bias.