Annus Mirabilis

"He appeared in class in somewhat shabby attire, wearing pants that were too short and carrying with him a slip of paper the size of a visiting card on which he had sketched his lecture notes."

Kaku, Cosmos, p. 78.


                     diagram of PV


Thermal energy or heat as a force.

fire Fire from the heavens: How Promethean was the photoelectric effect when coupled with E=MC2?

M = E / C2

Matter or mass is equivalent to E for energy / C or the velocity of the speed of light times itself (squared)

/ or ÷ divided by

300,000 m/second

or 90 billion

Electromagnetic fields and spectrum.



The character, behavior, and velocity of light.



inertia, "at rest," or Newton's First Law of Motion.

constant acceleration,

Car impact


time dilation and space contraction,



"the smallness of Planck's constant,"

the hidden world of atoms, electrons, electrical current, & thought experiments,
the time it takes for mathematical accuracy in predicting natural patterns and exceptional behavior.
The growth and rapid decay into irreconcilable differences of the marriage to Mileva after Eduard's birth.

Planck's constant

6.62607004 × 10-34 m2 kg / s


The Planck relation now describes the energy of each photon in terms of the photon's frequency. This energy is extremely small in terms of ordinary experience. The reduced Planck constant is the quantum of angular momentum in quantum mechanics.

Value of Planck's constant:

Planck's constant, symbolized h, relates the energy in one quantum (photon) of electromagnetic radiation to the frequency of that radiation. In the International System of units (SI), the constant is equal to approximately 6.626176 x 10-34 joule-seconds.


The hidden reality of our existence, as if by a filtering tissue of experience we are screened from important matters.



"One question debated at the conference [1911; 1st Solvay Conference] was the famous "twin paradox." Einstein had already made mention of the strange paradoxes concerning the slowing down of time."

Kaku, Cosmos, p. 79.


Personal life & letters

Einstein the man | His relativistic insights | On Albert Einstein | The famous equation's meaning

Kaku book contents | Who was Einstein? | Influences on Einstein's formative years | Existence | Speed of light | Terms | Start

What are the four papers about?

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