The origins of human reason
Title: The concurrent rise of modernity & science
When Dates       triglyph
  • 1269, Compass described to Europeans
  • 1348, Bubonic Plague sweeps into Europe
  • 1401, Chinese fleets sail to Africa
  • 1453, fall of Constantinople
  • 1521, Spanish circumnavigation
  • 1543, Kopernicus posthumous book
  • 1609, Starry Messenger, Galileo
  • 1633, Trial of Galileo
  • 1666, Newton's annus mirabilis
  • 1689, The Principia Mathematica
  • 1701, The Opticks
  • 1763, Treaty of Paris
Who   Significant     HollyHocks
  Terms and People  
  • geocentric
  • heliocentric
  • naturalism
  • observation
  • empiricism
  • vernacular
  • rationalism
  • reductionism
  • elements


The origins of how we observe, know, and teach about the world lies in the substratum of the late middle ages when people's credulous and frightened characteristics were faced with challenges to authority, civil unrest, famine and incessant warfare. Added to these unsettling personal and social dislocations were a series of discoveries about the earth and celestial bodies all traveling amid material forces shattered old beliefs about order. Such ideas when combined altered the way people would think about the places, the planet and the diverse peoples of the earth.

Stability was, if it ever existed, submerged in a sea of contesting beliefs, methods and such different assumptions that to safeguard their wealth and status humans sacrificed their rivals and killed in the name of heaven for fleeting power on earth.

Where Outline       Japanese garden, 2006.
  1 background Renaissance and nationalism: fostered a break-up of ecclesiastical property and translations of the Bible into national languages,  
  2 underlying Finance and commercial revolution and the fracturing of principalities  
  3 immediate Hundred Years Wars and the Hapsburg responses  
  4 climax Protestant Reformation and the wars of religious fanaticism  
  5 conclusion

A challenge to tradition & authority

ecclesiastical &

temporal revolts

Emergence of a methodology

  1. Galileo
  2. Hooke
  3. Earth Encompassed
  4. Discovery
  5. Revolutions in science