The Role of symbiosis in ecosystems

"Symbiosis, the system in which members of different species live in physical contact."

a foundation of wildness and the wild in wilderness

Science changed 1880 -1980

National Park Service was formed in 1916
National Forest Service's U & L regulations protect remote natural areas, 1939
Wilderness Act, 1964
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 1968clip
Endangered Species Act, 1973

By living together, simpler organisms create complex creatures & more stable conditions.

James Lovelock's, Gaia Hypothesis.