Navigating the site:
"The Wild-man as Superman tradition"
New Mexico's Bandelier National Monument, JVS 1984. & Chaco Butte through a Puebloan doorway, JVS, 2011.
The above ruins are from the agrarian, Anasazi peoples of the Rio Grande valley.
Oglala Lakotah (upper plains or northern Great Plains) people "did not think the great open plains, the beautiful rolling hills and winding streams with their tangled growth as 'wild.' Only to the white man was nature a 'wilderness' and …the land 'infested' with 'wild animals' and 'savage' people."
"The identification of the arid wasteland with God's curse led taut conviction that wilderness was an environment of evil."
Deuteronomy as opposed to Exodus in the Torah depicts wilderness as a cursed land "the abode of demons and devils."
The Columbia River gorge: a landscape cut by a flood of biblical proportions.
The "gloomy, dreary and unhallowed wilderness" of the Columbia River.
To the pioneers the wilderness was both a physical fact and a "sinister symbol"
"The unfavorable attitude towards wilderness that Tocqueville observed in Michigan also existed on other American frontiers."
"Tocqueville, on the whole, was correct in his analysis that 'living in the wilds' produced a bias against them. Constant exposure to wilderness gave rise to fear and hatred on the part of those who had to fight it for survival and success."
Another view-- the impact of remoteness on the American imagination.
Childe Hassam, Boston Common, Oil on Canvas, American, 1885.
"Appreciation for wilderness began in the cities."
"The ideas of these literati determined their experience..."
Albert Bierstadt, Bison Trail, 1867 Oil on Canvas; Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
"...the wild sublimities of nature."
Chataubriand wrote about America.