Darwin's misunderstood perspectives:
Martin Johnson Heade (1819-1904)
Blue Crested Hummingbirds
Oil on Canvas
12 x 10 inches
Tree of life
literalism, contradicts God's revealed truth in Genesis.
finalism, Darwin's "variations" violate the underlying, and relentlessly pursued, progression toward perfection of form and function.
essentialism, eviscerates the need for or removes the necessity of describing nature as originating from essences and forming types.
pp. 73 - 82.
What exactly is developing?
Three divergent explanations:
Typological thought: essences
are all there are. From Pythagorean, Plato and Aquinas, the existence of
a "natural kind."
Population thinking: groups of similar (behavioral or apparent) objects are all there are. "foundation of modern ... biology"
Finalism: teleos, said Aristotle is a belief in the end purpose of all things. Called teleology, or the study of final causes, this is the belief that "ends" are all there is. The propensity of life to move to perfection, "elan vital".
"Changing in a distinctly" clearly
"directional sequence" "It is the population. And the population turns out to be the most important site of evolution. Evolution is best understood as the genetic turnover (genotype) of the individuals of every population from generation to generation."
(key here is access and not just desire, opportunity and fortune) even Darwin was inconsistent in its application."
Three theories of Evolution
|type of belief in change:Evidence for||Verdict|
|1) Transmutation,consistent with naturalist's observations.||simultaneous mutations would be necessary.|
|2) Transformation, ApaptednessGeological uniformitarianism confirmed.||inheritance of acquired characteristics is impossible.|
|3) Orthogenesis,propensity of complexity to be viewed as similar to perfection.||Natural selection is a simpler and sufficient explanation.|
|4) variational evolutionA. R. Wallace's line in Indonesia||"Population thinking" is fundamental|
"Variation played no role in transmutationism nor in either of the two forms of transformation. 'Evolution' takes place in transmutationism through the origin of a new essence and in the transformationist theories through a gradual change of the essence."
"Darwin showed that one simply could not understand evolution as long as one accepted essentialism."
Instability appears to be an inherent characteristic of the genotype and particularly in the expression (phenotype) of genes. Thus both intrinsic, genotypic changes and apparent, phenotypic changes are part of life's endowment.