Inca (PERU AND ECUADOR) as a model for thinking about the Caribbean Arawakan, Ciboney, and Carib people's emergence and their modes of subsistence on maize, manioc and fisheries.

10,000 Years ago retreat of the Wurm / Wisconsin Glaciation, sea level rises.

8000 BC. Change in climate to wet and warm.

2500 BC. on the coast of desert Peru civilization based on corn (zea maize) emerged.

900-500 BC. Chavin culture.

300 AD. irrigation and fertilization.

Nazca culture of coastal fishermen and corn culture.

Mochica, coast of northern Peru.

600 AD. shift from coastal to mountain conditions of life.

Tiahuanaco, Southern shore of Lake Titicaca in the altiplano

Huari peoples

1000 Ad break-up of the Huari people

Chimu Kingdom

1450s Incan conquest of Bolivia, Peru, Columbia

Inca Empire

Encuentro -- the encounter with Pizarro

1492 Columbus made landfall in Hispaniola among the Taino Amerindians

1493 Columbus (2d voyage) brings 1200 colonists to Hispaniola

1498 Columbus (3rd voyage) journeyed to the coast of Guyana and Venezuela.

1499 Columbus (4th voyage) to Central America, Panama and Jamaica.

1530s civil war in the Incan Empire

1532 the arrival of the 200 Conquistadors and Pizarro in northern Peru

1533 November the Spanish sack and destroy Cuzco

1552 "The greatest event since the creation of the world... is the discovery of the Indies."

1492-1575 90-95% decline in the indigenous population of America's -30 to 40 million.

1804 Haitian Independence declared from France.

1821 Mexican Independence declared from Spain.

Crosby Famines

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