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Caribbean settlements

Time Lines

Pivotal transitions | Four centuries of occupation | map

la conquista

Diego Rivera's 1920s mural of the Aztec's defeat.

The Pivotal Periods of Caribbean cultural fusion

Time Line                       

1300            Hopi Indigenous people's occupation of Old Oraibi Mesa, (N.M.) use of coal for heat.
1453            The Turks seize Constantinople from the Byzantine Greeks.
1480            Portugal opens west Africa to slaving.
1492            Unification of Aragon, Castile & Leon & conquest of the Moors in Grenada.
                     England (Henry 7th) invades northern France.
                     Columbus first voyage to the West Indies.
1493            Columbus 2d voyage to the Greater Antilles: St. Domingo, Puerto Rico, Jamaica.
                        cattle, fowl, horses, sugar cane and wheat brought from Spain.
1494            Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain & Portugal divides the entire world.
1494            French (Charles 8th) invasion of Italy and wars with Spain.
                        Aldine Press in Venice produces first “pocket” books.
1497            John Cabot (Italian) sail to North America, for England.
1497            Vasco de Gama’s voyage (Portugal) rounds Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
1498            Columbus 3d voyage to Trinidad, Orinoco River & Colombia.
                        Vasco de Gama reaches India (Goa, Gujarat).
1502            de Gama’s 2d voyage (Portugal) to India.

                        small watch (spring-driven time piece) was invented in Germany.

                        Renaissance Map
1507            German map makers initiate the term “new world” for American maps.
1508            First sugar mill in the West Indies.
1511            first Catholic Bishops in the Americas: 2 in Hispaniola and 1 in Puerto Rico.
1513            Juan Ponce de Leon from Puerto Rico reaches Florida on a slaving expedition.
                        Vasco Nüñez de Balboa Christens the Pacific Ocean at the Isthmus of Panama.
1514            Portugal’s fleet first enter Chinese ports (1570, trade into Japan).
1517            Francisco Fernandez de Cordoba lands on and explores the Yucatan peninsula.
1517            Protestant Reformation in Germany and Western Europe.
1519            Cortes lands in Mexico with men and horses.
                        Piñeda explores the Gulf from Florida to Veracruz, Mexico.

A time line of four centuries of colonial struggle & independence.

The Valley of Mexico

Dates,                       Wars & events described

1495-           French invasion of Italy, wars with Spain for control of city states.
1505            Treaties of Blois, divides Italy between France and Spain.

1522            Fleet of Magellan completes Euro- circumnavigation of the seas.

Map of Magellan's voyage
1544 Map of Magellan's 1520-22 voyage.

1522            Magellan’s circumnavigation of the Earth, survived by his crew proves the planet
                     is a sphere and introduces the modern conception of geo-realism.
1524            Giovanni da Verrazano (Italian) sails for France from Maine to Carolina.
1525            William Tyndale translates the New Testament into English.
1526            Giovanni da Verrazano killed by indigenous people of the West Indies.
1536             Cabeza de Vaca arrives in Mexico having been lost in Texas in 1528.
1539            Hernando de Soto lands in Florida and explores the southeast.
                        Antonio de Mendoza founded the 1st press in the Americas in Mexico City.
1540            Coronado leaves Mexico for southwest exploration & the Grand Canyon.
1542            Juan Cabrillo explores the California Coast for Spain.
1543            Copernicus (posthumously) heliocentric solar system published.
                        Andrea Vesalius, Belgian anatomist, publishes an accurate anatomy book.
                        Spanish Inquisition is to root out “alleged” Protestant & Jewish heresies.
1545            Counter Reformation started by the Catholic Church.

1550            Peak of Spanish power (until 1600) Charles V & Phillip II.

1555            French settle in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
1558            Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Spain, sends tobacco to Paris.
1564            Peace of Troyes ends the Anglo French War.
1564            French Huguenots settle on St. John’s River at Fort Caroline, Florida.
1566            William of Orange declares Holland free from Spain.
1566            Netherland’s war for independence against Spain (Hapsburgs).
1570            Abraham Ortellius (Dutch) produces the first world Atlas.
1571            Spanish Colony in Manila, Philippines.

                      (Manila Galleons as first global trade network linking Spain to Mexico, South                      America, Asia and The Philippines.)

1576            40,000 African slaves in South America introduced by the Portuguese & Spanish.
1579            Union of Utrecht, 7 Dutch provinces declare Netherlands free of Spain.
1586            Sir Francis Drake stalks, raids, & seizes Spanish wealth in Florida & the West Indies.
1588            defeat of the Spanish Armada by England.

1608            German Protestant Union (GPU) founded.
1609            Catholic League formed by Duke of Bavaria, in opposition to GPU.
                     Governor's Palace in Santa Fe, New Mexico built.

1618            Prague Revolt against Hapsburgs starts the Thirty Years War.
1621            Resumption of the Spanish-Dutch War.
1629            Charles I, Stuart, dissolves English Parliament.

1636            Manchus (Manchuria) invade China and declare Ch'ing Dynasty.

1642            English Civil War begins between Crown (Charles I) & Puritans.
1648            2d English Civil War.
1648            Treaty of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War: Dutch & Swiss free.

1649            Charles I tried for treason and beheaded by Parliament.

1652-           Anglo-Dutch War over colonial trade (Dutch found Capetown, South Africa).
1654            Peace between Britain and the Netherlands.
1655            English capture Jamaica from Spain.

1657-           Anglo French War against Spain.
1659            Peace of the Pyrenees.
1660            Restoration of the Stuart (Catholic) Monarchy in Britain.
1663            Charles II of England charters the Royal Africa Company, slave trade.

1666-            French, Danes support Dutch in Anglo -Dutch War (West Indies).
1667             Treaty of Breda (Dutch retain Surinam relinquish New York).
1667-            War of Devolution: France seizes the Spanish Netherlands (Flanders).
1668            Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1672 -           Anglo-French War against the Dutch.
1674            Treaty of Westminster, England signed with Netherlands.

1674-           Holy Roman - Franco-Swedish war.
1679            Treaty of Nijmegen, France with Holy Roman Empire & Sweden.

1688            War of the League of Augsburg England, Netherlands & Spain vs. France.
1693            French fleet defeats the English off of Portugal.
1697            Treaty of Ryswick ends the 1688-97 war.

1701            War of Spanish Succession Anglo-French War.
1702            Queen Anne's War in the colonies & West Indies.
1713            Peace of Utrecht end the War of Spanish Succession.

1713            Assiento: sole right of Britain to trade African slaves in the Americas.

1719            Franco-Spanish War {Quadruple Alliance (1718)}.
1720            Treaty of the Hague end the Franco-Spanish War.

1727            Anglo-Spanish War begins.
1729            Treaty of Seville, status quo antebellum.

1740            War of Austrian Succession (Austria, Britain vs. France, Spain, Saxony).
                       British siege of Cartagena, & seize West Indian ports.
1741              Russians find Alaska (Vitus Bering).
                       British attack Santiago Cuba -- (King George's War).
1745            New Englander's seize French fort of Louisbourg, Nova Scotia.
1746            French seize Madras in India from Britain.
1748            Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of Austrian Succession.

1756 Seven Years' War (French and Indian War) in Europe, America, India
                       Spain, France, Austria, Russia & Sweden vs. Britain, Prussia, Hannover.
1762            British seize Cuba from Spain (later returned) occupying Havana.
1763      Treaty of Paris resolves the first worldwide war, Florida is British,
                       French lose Canada, India and St. Domingo, retain Haiti, Guadeloupe.

1765            British East India Company gains control of NE. India, Bengal.
1776            Britain's North American Colonies secede from the Empire
1777            British seize and hold Philadelphia
1778            Franco-British War begins (Dutch join 1779 & Spain in 1780)
1779            French seize St. Vincent & the Grenadines from Britain.
1780            British seize Charleston, S.C.
1781            French fleet defeats British at Hampton Roads & Yorktown, Virginia.
1782            The Netherlands [Dutch] recognize US independence.
1783    Treaty of Paris resolves north American Independence from England.
                                   Britain returns Florida to Spain, including New Orleans.

1789            Calling of the Estates General in Versailles by Louis 16th (not convened since 1614).
                       Beginning of the French Revolution.
1790            French National Assembly declares a democracy under limited king.
1791            Slave revolt in Haiti, brutally suppressed, Haiti in rebellion.
1792     Wars of the French Revolution against Prussia and Austria.
1793            Spain, Britain and Netherlands join against France.
1794            Britain suspends the Habeas Corpus Act.
1795            Napoleon Bonaparte commands the French Army in Italy.
1796            Spain sides with France and changes allegiances.
1798            Napoleon invades Egypt.
1799            French invasion of Syria rebuffed by the Ottoman Turks.

1799            Alexander Von Humboldt begins a 5-year tour of Latin America.

1800            Spain secretly ceded Louisiana back to France.
1801            France and Austria Treaty of Lunéville ends the Holy Roman Empire.
1802            Treaty of Amiens among France, Spain and Britain cease hostilities.
                       Egypt returned to the Ottoman Turks.
                       French send troops to suppress Haitian Independence under Toussaint. L'Ouvature on            the island of Hispaniola (St. Domingue).
1803            Anglo-Franco War resumes over Malta -- Louisiana Purchase.
1804            Napoleon declared Emperor of France (after assassination plot fails).
                       Spain joins France to war with Britain.
                       Large force of Mulattoes and freed slaves defeat French in Haiti.
              Haiti declares its independence.
1807            Treaties of Tilsit between France and Russia & Prussia.
                       Portuguese Monarch flees French to refuge in Brasil.
1808            Spanish revolt against the French.
                       Mexico, upon Spanish uprisings begins to agitate for independence.

1810     Mexico (New Spain) and South America (New Grenada) in revolt.
1812            French Army (largest ever assembled 500K) invades Russia.
1814            European allied states capture Paris, Napoleon abdicates, exiled.
1815            Congress of Vienna settles European, American, Asian boundaries.

1816            Spanish authority reestablished in Mexico.
1816-17      Chile & Argentina in revolt from Spain under Jose Martin.
1818            Jean Pierre Boyer, President of Haiti.
1819            Simon Bolivar, defeats Spanish royal forces in Venezuela & Colombia.
1820            Jose Martin moves against Spanish forces in Peru.

1821            Bolivar defeats Spain in Venezuela and Colombia.
                       Mexico, Peru, & Guatemala Independent of Spanish rule

1822            Augustin de Itrubide, declared 1st Emperor of Mexico.
                       Haitians take control of all Hispaniola, to free colony from Spain.

1823            Emperor Itrubide forced to abdicate.
                                   5 smaller nations of Central America form free confederation.
1824            Mexico is declared a Republic.
1825            Bolivia declares independence from Spain.
                       Portugal recognizes Brazilian Independence.
1827            Argentinian-Brazillian war over Uruguay.
1830            Venezuela and Ecuador separate from Colombia (New Granada).

1833            Britain abolishes slavery in the Empire and an end to the slave trade.
                                   Antonio López de Santa Ana elected Mexico's president.
1835            centralization of the Mexican government.
1836            Andres Santa Cruz of Bolivia successfully invades Peru.
1839            Civil War in central America ends federation.
                       Chile invades Peru and defeats the Bolivians.
                       China forbids the importation of opium.
                       Opium Wars begin between Britain and China.
1842            Treaty of Nanking cedes Hong Kong to Britain & reopens Canton.

1844            Dominican Republic established against Haitian rule.
1846            California declares itself a Republic, Bear Flag Revolt from Mexico.
1846            US declares war on Mexico.
1847            British and French naval blockade of Argentina for five years.
1848            Revolutions and uprisings throughout urban Europe (Paris, Vienna).
                       Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo cedes 1/3 of Alta Mexico to USA.

1850            US Compromise of 1850 unrestrictive slavery in the territories.

                       Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, Anglo-US accord, on neutrality of Panama.
1851            Expedition of filibusters from New Orleans seeks to free Cuba from Spain.
1854            Ostend Manifesto USA declares right to seize Cuba if Spain refuses to sell the islands.
1855            William Walker (California) invades Nicaragua and seizes control 1856.
1857            Mexican adoption of a civilian and liberal constitution causes civil war.
1857            Benito Juarez, President of Mexico.
1861            Britain, France and Spain invade Mexico to force Juarez to pay debts.
1862            Napoleon III hopes to establish a French Empire in Mexico.
1863            French troops invade and capture Mexico City, Austrian archduke,

                       Maximilian declared Mexican Emperor.
1863      Civil War in Mexico.
1865            US abolished slavery with the adoption of the 13th Amendment.
1867            Maximilian is defeated by Benito Juarez, who reestablishes order.
1870-71      Franco-Prussian War (over disposition of Spanish throne) France is defeated.

1877            Porfirio Diaz elected President of Mexico (remains until 1911).
1879            Chile declares war on Bolivia & Peru over Atacama nitrate mine rights.
1883            Treaty of Ancón between Chile & Peru.
1884            Truce of Valparaiso between Chile & Bolivia.
1889            Brazil declared a Republic.
                       First Pan American conference meet in Washington, D. C.
1890            creation of the Pan-American Union, for inter national assistance.
1892            global depression, bank failures in US leads to Populist Party.
1895            War breaks out in Cuba to fight for independence from Spain.
                       US interferes in the British-Venzuelan boundary dispute (Guyana).
1896            Congress grants "belligerent" status to Cubans over Spain's objections.

1898            Battleship Maine explodes in Havana, US declares war on Spain.
1898            Treaty of Paris, ends the Spanish War in US favor:

                                   Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam ceded to US and Cuba becomes a US protectorate.
1899 1st World Peace Conference in the Hague, est. International Court of Justice.
                       Secretary of State John Hay, announces the Open Door Policy. (China)
1900            Hawaii a US territory.
1901            Hay-Pauncefote Treaty with Britain to build a Canal in Panama.
                       Platt Amendment passed by Congress forced on Cuba before US left.
1902            US offer to buy the Virgin Islands from Denmark, rejected.
1903            US treaty with Colombia for Panama Canal rejected by Colombia's Senate.
                       Panama declares its independence from Colombia.
1904            Supreme Court rules that Puerto Ricans are not aliens, nor citizens.
1905            Roosevelt Corollary of the Monroe Doctrine extends US hegemony.
1906            Roosevelt sends troops to Cuba to maintain order.
1907            Honduras defeated by Nicaragua.
1910      Mexican Revolution.
1911            Chinese Republic est. By Sun Yat Sen in South China.
1912            US Marines dispatched to Nicaragua during revolt & to China.
1914     The Great War (World War One): Anglo-French vs. Germany & Austria.
                       US dispute with Mexico heightens as US fires on Veracruz, Mexico.
1915            US Marines sent to Haiti.
                       The Opening of the Panama Canal by the USA
1916            US Troops in Santo Domingo until 1921, & Troops in Northern Mexico.
1917            US declares war on the Central Powers (Germany, Austria, Turkey).
           Russian Revolution, abdication of the Czar.
1918            Armistice, influenza epidemic kills 20 million, Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, US troops sent.
1919       Treaty of Versailles, ending World War One.
1920            Creation of the League of Nations.

1958            Ouster of Fulgencio Batista from Cuba by the Castro's insurgents
1962            Cuban Missile Crisis between the U. S. and the Soviet Union.
1965            Overthrow of Trujillo leads to Dominican Republic unrest and another U.S. Invasion.
2015      United States reopens relations with Cuba after Papal (Vatican) intervention.





Alfred Crosby, Germs, Seeds & Animals.
Octavio Paz, El Laberinto de la Soledad
Labor Theory of Value