The above links demonstrate features sustaining a basic ecological structure using an analytical approach to properties of material production in natural systems from the general concept of ecological systems to the specific ecosystem services they provide when not disturbed.

The table reveals a variety of solutions or interventions to remedy these different degrees of disturbance.


The type of ecological effects that undermine functionally necessary structures in ecosystems.

Ecological pyramidspyramid

These structurally necessary parts of an ecological system function variably to sustain a diversity of or a thriving number of species and thereby interfere with needed services because the extent of the interference diminishes the accumulation of natural capital:




The relationship between natural capital and commercial assets over time as a graph:

Natural capital natural capital economy

Table of Consequences

" degrees of disturbance "

# Type duration remedy strategies
1 disruption short-term leave undisturbed preservation, breeding
2 damage long-term conservation adaptive management
3 destruction nearly permanent restoration landscape renewal


Because natural systems are dynamic and change with time, climate regime, geographical features and weathering, there are means to work with ecological processes to revive or restore wetlands, forests, fields, or populations of desired plants, animals, fungus or bacterial biota.

glacier park

The computer simulation of the effects of abrupt climate change on part of Glacier National Park.


Life on earth is ancient and divisible into six huge kingdoms of thousands of related species with a common ancestral line from which all descended with differing capabilities and genetic capacities to adapt to altered conditions that favor one or another of these strategies for survival, nourishment, reproduction, and dispersal so that species are flourishing despite inherited disadvantages.



The three "D" s of ecosystem resilience and decline:

disruption | damage | destruction

Disruption, is the intermittent disturbance or enormous interference with natural systems.

    • deforestation
    • fire
    • drainage



Damage, refers to the undermining of an ecosystem's productive potential.

    • oil spill
    • sewage
    • dumping non-toxic but astringent chemicals

oil wells


Destruction, involves the actual loss of one or more species, key physical features, or ecological ingredients that so sustain an ecological system that it ceases to exist as it was.

    • toxic waste disposal
    • radiation exposure
    • acid rain

Waldsterben - acidified forest


Habitats and biotic communities of importance:

biomes along a transect of the central  USA's 40th N. parallel Precipitation water cycle
A transect of biomes along the 40th N. parallel of the central USA.
Oak Savannah woodlands thrive adaptively in periodically very dry regions such as Central California's hills.


Drought patterns in the USA by county over a century from 1900-2012.

"More than half of the country was under moderate to extreme drought in June [2012], the largest area of the contiguous United States affected by such dryness in nearly 60 years. Nearly 1,300 counties across 29 states have been declared federal disaster areas. Areas under moderate to extreme drought in June of each year are shown in orange above."

New York Times: 7-20-2012

Terms to recall:

origins of natural wealth.

biotic capital.

solar savings.


auxiliary systems.

booster capacity.

WEAL from weald.



conserving productivity.


seed corn.


counter-cyclical compensation.

utility as a dead-end.

saving vs. spending,

preservation and capital preservation,