Estuary protection was then and currently remains inadequate.

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Legislative history
The concerns along the coast that led to estuary protection had their origins in the suburban sprawl of Nassau County, Long Island, New York and a citizen led fight against filling of Great South Bay, between 1963-1965.

1966 a bill was introduced in Congress to expand comprehensive planning in coastal areas

Massachusetts interests entered the array of supporters as the 1966 bill was defeated

In 1965, Governor John Volpe of Mass. expanded DNR permitting to protect 45,000 acres of coastal marshes in that state.

Takings issue explained. the use of private land for public purposes and reasonable compensation based on the the fifth amendment.

Northern California citizen pressure

Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1934

amended in 1946

Congressional action for water quality

1948 and 1956 precedents in assisting local governments in making water purity a national matter

Water Quality Act of 1965, water pollution was accepted as a federal problem to be dealt with nationally

1955 USDA had declared the "year of wetlands" raised awareness about need to buy fish and bird habitat, pursuant to federal treaties and laws (Lacey Act)

By 1960 NY State provided grants to Long Island to purchase wetlands.

Federal support for regional and comprehensive planning in 1962

NOAA, 1970 and the Intergovernmental Coordination Act of 1968

Land and Water Conservation Fund, 1964, was a novel means of funding recreation purchases

Federal desire to balance development and coordinate the bureaucracy

Congressional intent appeared to be moving in the direction of coastal conservation

1965 Rep. Tenzer introduced Long Island Wetland Protection bill

1966 version of the bill favored by the Administration and Chairman Dingell would have given the Secretary of the Interior control over Dredge and Fill Permits, instead of Army Corps of Engineers.

Dingell-Kennedy Bill was defeated in the House by three votes on 10-3-1966.

Alabama, Mississippi, & Virginia Congressional delegations were opposed.

Absenteeism was a factor as was Republican opposition which spearheaded the defeat.

1967 the bill was re-introduced in the House.

1968 A Senate version of the bill was accepted by the House.

Opposition was from The Army Corps of Engineers over the dual permitting system envisioned by the legislation

Great Lakes were included to build support for the bill.

Summer 1967 Stewart Udall and ACE signed an MOU on the permit issuance controversy.

New version of the Bill in 1968 had support of House and Warren Magnuson in the Senate.

August 3, 1968 a weaker bill emerged as law, mandating a national estuarine sanctuary program

Joint federal-state systems of Estuarine Management areas was also envisioned.

The Bill defined

The terms you need to know and use in essays.

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J. Siry, Marshes of the Ocean Shore.