How the Earth's wild areas are
significant to protect from harm, loss or decay.
Organizing our ideas about protection of land and water resources.
A dialectical approach:
Two views: Nash
Alaska & Pollan: a dialectic one view contradicts the other.
Second Nature, Michael Pollan, 1991. pp. 209-238.
Dialectic means two opposing or contradictory views that it is implied--
must be reconciled.
Idea of a Garden
is sacred ground
is inadequate to meet our current needs.
now, more than ever before!
is a more accurate description of what we need.
Garden is a cultivated and responsible ideal.
Nash, we are a
nation of wilds, wildness defines our character as a people.
"In Wildness is the preservation of the world."
Concord Lyceum address, by Thoreau in Nash, p. 84.
Seven reasons to
protect wild areas include:
Fire, invasive exotic plants
ecological Introduced animals
Loss of biological diversity
- Survival of
indigenous people impacts on the resources
study is Alaskan Wilderness
among conservationists that Alaska could be different. (p.
Who Robert Marshall, 1920s Alaska Wilderness the last frontier
What an area 1/5 or 20% the size of the US. With < 150.000 in 1959
When Alaskan Native Claims settlement Act,12-18-1971, & the oil pipeline
Where Between Russia and Canada, the Pacific and Arctic Oceans
How Do we balance the necessity of resources for industrial economy with:
Aleuts, Inuit, Athapaskan and other native peoples
natural heritage preservation tradition: Muir & Gannett on the
Harriman expedition. Is scenery more valuable than timber & hides?
Development and Conservation
Arctic biology and biogeography: permafrost, tundra, caribou, musk ox.
Background is Leopold, Marshall, and a comparative approach to saving
wildlife & wild areas
(16, A philosophy of protection Nash, pp. 238-271.)
Ginny Wood (compare
to Mardy Murie, in Williams) space, spectacularly beautiful space
that is not all filled up with people and industry
idea (Harriman expedition) about scenic values.
Commercial Values Project Chariot: atomic bomb built harbor
at Port Hope 1958.
Ecological Values Wildlife, fisheries, salmon, 1891 Afognak Island
Scenic Values Brooks Range, Denali, Glacier Bay, Chugach Rain
Survival (subsistence) Values homesteading, trap, prospect, hunt
How do we manage conflict between oil drilling on the Arctic National
legacy similar to Yukon Flats Reservoir and Ramparts Dam project 1959
Dinosaur National Monument legacy: National Interest Lands
104 million acres set aside, 56 million acres of wilderness
trebled size of wild areas in US while it assures native rights to land.
What are our values trying to achieve?
Utilitarian versus ecological criteria: Arctic North Slope oil,
Reserve # 4. The energy reserve on the high frontier.
Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea fisheries
Its tough up here
this country can kill you.
Governor Walter Wally Hickel
concept of wilderness in Alaska is ethnocentric to the point of being
insulting. (p. 277)
Our Common Threat: ecological consequences of pollution at a distance: McKibben, pp. 1-44.
Mid-Term * report: compare Nash w/ Leopolds A Taste
for Country pp. 177-226. (oral)
What is a wilderness philosophy and does the Pollan challenge undermine the urgency of protecting the wild?
Step 2: Show how a Taste for Country --by Leopold-- relates
to or reconciles this split in protecting wild natural areas that separate Nash from Pollan. (by comparing Leopold, Nash, Pollan,
& Williams isn a brief essay. )
trip to the Chelonian Institute, Oviedo, Alafaya Trail N of Mitchell Hammock
Road Decide Thursday or Friday 1 PM - 4 PM:
wild species; endangered species and adequate resources.
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