|........A visual annotated index for sciences|
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Kip Thorne, Cal Tech theoretical physicist has written that "In the decades since 1967, some things we thought were sure have been proven wrong. (For example we could never have believed in 1967 that a black hole can evaporate.) This has taught us caution."
A black hole–predicted by general relativity theory–is the result of a far more massive star than our sun after it collapses and the gravitational forces are so great that light cannot escape the gravity field. Even at 186,000 miles per second the speed of light is less than the "escape velocity" needed to break free of the collapsed star.
As Stephen Hawking explains "Radiation from black holes was the first example of a prediction that depended on both great theories of this century, general relativity and quantum mechanics." See Hawking.
Apparent motion of the planets in time-lapsed photography, from the earth.
Earth as if it were the central feature of the universe.
"The French and German triads that correspond to our plain English 'natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities', are 'les sciences natruelle, les sciences sociales, et les sciences humaines' and 'die Naturwissenschaften, die Sozialwissenschaften, und die Geisteswissenschaften.' In both the term for studies of poetry, language and philosophy–studies that are humanistic and decidedly literary in form–includes a 'science' word.
The point is that the foreigners have gotten it right. 'Literary criticism is a science' or 'Economics is a science' should not be the fighting words they are in English. The fighting lacks point because, as our friends across the water could have told us, nothing important depends on its outcome. Indeed, science is a collection of literary forms, Not a Science. And literary forms are scientific."
Deirdre N. McCloskey, The Rhetoric of Economics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998 (2d ed.) . p. 21.
How to know: This is the Greek concept of epistemology, the study of how we know things.
Science is a means of knowing systematically with some certainty:
Methods: these are two related pages that discuss, examine in some detail and diagram the means we have from distinguishing facts from opinions. See also certainty, science, and vocabulary.
Model here is a schematic diagram of ecological relationships in any place.
Doing something with what we discover:
biological game of life is a very different view of nature.
Biogeochemical Cycles, Biological, geological and chemical cycling of nutrients for growth.
Darwin, On the Origin of Species, (1859)
Diversity of Life, E. O. Wilson
Einstein's thoughts about research and society
Evolution was Charles Darwin's revolutionary proof of common descent by means of natural selection.
Evolution, what is it?
Feedback is defined and examples of how it is used in these pages is explained.
Five dimensions, not three?
see below for lessons:
Genetic resistance to disease, an example.
Genome, highlights of traits from across the chromosomes.
Hawking's theories, Stephen Hawking.
Lewontin, The Triple Helix.
Living Downstream, an ecologist looks at cancer.
Mayr, Ernst, One Long Argument.
Mayr on species.
Mayr's diagram of Darwin's theories
Margulis, Symbiotic Planet.
Medicinal values of plants, an example.
Miller, G. Tyler on ecosystems.
Ockham's Razor, the importance of avoiding pleonasm in your writing!
Plutonium and its use.
Scientific method, three necessary features of