Articulating actual costs
Identifying the real cleanup costs:
"The prevailing political paradigm obscured its meaning."
"Scientific assessments of the global rates of deforestation provide extensive data with a high degree of precision and are generally considered reliable."
Two dimension of scientific problems:
All politics is local.
Some pollution is not local, but transboundary because its affects cross borders.
1972, Alvin Weinberg, "policy makers were increasingly being called upon to construct public policy based on uncertain science."
The fair policy versus precautionary principle:
In the cases of the Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea
Science & Politics, pp. 203-324.