Max Horkheimer, "The Revolt of Nature"

(1947) pp. 100-101, 104-5, 108-9.

The analysis of some of his arguments.

Eclipse of Reason, The Frankfurt School

"The history of man's efforts to subjugate nature is also the history of man's subjugation by man." (236)

"the ego… related to the functions of domination, command, & organization."
"The entire universe becomes a tool of the ego…"

"… nature is today more than ever conceived as a mere tool of man. It is the object of total exploitation that has no aim set by reason, and therefore no limit. Man's boundless imperialism is never satisfied."


Shaler, Artist Looks at nature, 1945

"The contradiction has only become institutionalized hypocrisy has turned cynical, it does not even expect to be believed."

"expression has become an instrument used by technicians in the service of industry."

"Today nature's tongue is taken away."

"Nature has been stripped of all intrinsic value & meaning."

"man has been stripped of all aims" except self preservation.

"relations other than pragmatic [are] suspect."


inherent qualities
pragmatic attitude
A spectrum of conflicting value

"Modern insensitivity to nature is indeed only a variation of the pragmatic attitude…."


"Animals here are only considered simply as obstructions to traffic."

instrumentalism: "The principle of domination has become the ideal to which everything is sacrificed."


In Derek Wall, Green History, (1994) pp. 235-237.


Nature essay

nature as an asset

nature defined

nature's geometry

nature as places


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