What does the wealth of the world represent

Siry's Ecology Web Page

EarthANSWERS to the geology of the Earth and its soil resources.

Earth’s structure and geology: lithosphere is 1 of 3 components of the planet's ecological systems.

The Earth is the niche of life: because it is the place life alters as it coexists.


watermoleculeThere are three ecological spheres on this planet (terra, Latin for earth):

  1. lithosphere -- rocks, molten magma from the mantle, ores and sediments.
  2. hydrosphere -- water, persists on earth as a vapor, liquid and solid (ice).
  3. atmosphere -- air composed usually of nitrogen, oxygen and trace elements such as carbon dioxide and argon.



9-1 Earth’s structure is made up of what three parts?

The names of the layerd parts are:



Inner: core



Intermediate: mantle



Outer: crust


    The earth's layers are propelled by escaping heat from a viscous, hot mantle.


9-2 What occurs in the interior to promote plate tectonics? Molten rock rises
9-2.1 What are the three ways plate boundaries meet?
9-2.2 The divergence, plates move away from one another
9-2.3 The subduction or convergence where uplift & volcanoes form
9-2.4 The transform fault, where (California) one fault slips passed another

9-3 What are the three major types of rocks?
9-3.1 A. sedimentary
9-3.2 B. IGNEOUS
9-3.3 C. metamorphic

9-4 What are nonrenewable minerals? Oil, gas, coal, iron, copper; gone once used

9-5 What does depletion time mean? When 80% of the reserves are gone
9-5.1 Do mining companies pay very little to mine and damage public land? Y
9-5.2 Are microbes used to extract copper from copper ore? Y

9-6 What are two forms of natural geological hazards? Earthquakes & Volcanic eruptions

Continental drift causes earthquakes and volcanoes

Plate tectonics explains the past movement and location of oceans and landmasses on the Earth.


Map revealing the tectonic plate boundaries today.

9-7 What major layers are found in most soils? O-litter; A, topsoil; B, subsoil; C, parent material or substrate
9-7.1 What are three ways that soils differ:
9-7.1.1 Content is referred to as: texture
9-7.1.2 Volume is measured as: Porosity
9-7.1.3 Chemistry is measured by: pH, acidity or alkalinity

Contour plowing

9-8 What is and what causes soil erosion? Loss of mass due to natural weathering and human, cultural influences such as farm tillage, building.
9-8.1 What is desertification? The loss of soil fertility; degraded by 10%
9-8.2 What does salinity have to do with soils? Irrigated soils accumulate mineral salts that under high evaporation leave salt in the soil.

9-9 What are two means to promote soil conservation? Tillage and cropping
Are soils alive? Portions of soils are alive with microbes, bacteria, fungi & “billions of living organisms, most of them microscopic decomposers.”


P. 188.


Soil Erosion  
Drawing of the ancient Greek terrain
Explanation of the meaning

Why is soil fertility a basic or foundation feature in the arch of life? Without soil plants don’t grow on land, no forests, no materials, fuel, habitats or O, chemical symbol for oxygen

What was the dust bowl? 1926-1934 the loss of topsoil from the southern plains due to drought combined with over grazing and poor tillage.

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What are the rules of ecology?