volute Veracity, verity and error:

Different means of determining errors.

Distinguishing how little from how much we do not understand.

Karl Popper on what constitutes reliability in experimental science:

"the criterion of the scientific status of a theory is its falsifiability, or refutability, or testability."

These are the means of moving up the pyramid from knowing appearances to understanding isolated causes or connected interrelations.

the neutron

Falsifiability is a means employed to doubt, test hypotheses and formalize a theory or observation.

3 possible experimental outcomes are:
+ hypothesis is confirmed; yes
- the hypothesis is denied; no
ø the experiment is inconclusive!

Karl Popper, Conjectures & Refutations, p. 37

McCloskey's critique of the concept of falsifiable concepts.

The necessity of doubt.

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