I use the one, two, three, or 1. 2. 3. approach:


My "1,2,3 approach" consists of steps that correspond to the organization of the course [CORE].

Step Organizational framework in any lecture, essay, or case. relation to CORE
  • 1.
this is what I said. Clarify
  • 2.
this is why it is important.





  • 3.
this is what I said because of its importance remember the lesson.



Title: How to understand that lectures & discussions are related to how you are accountable for readings and explaining your notes in class.


Part of the clarification process, a messy stage of generating ideas that give some deep background or foundations of what I am referring you to memorize --or at least never forget-- so you can use it in your essays.

I am referring to basic knowledge that informs because it details, defines, explains, uses examples from the texts and compares data from different authors and authorities quoted by your authors.



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Part of the clarification process that if done carefully, precisely and clearly can lead to the organization of information based on either defining terms, or defining when and in what sequence events occurred, and demonstrating logical connections.


What is a logical connection among details, or between concepts or how is a preponderance of the data (examples) sufficient to clarify a point you are making?

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Start with My Web Site move to the Index of the texts, then on to any glossary in the books and only use the Oxford English Dictionary for a serious definition:


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Start by going to My Web Site move to the Indexes, use all of the texts' dates, then on to the Oxford English Dictionary for recording the dates of the changes over time in the meaning of the key terms you are investigating.

before 600 AD is Ancient history in China, Europe and India.

from 601 - 1453 is Medieval history Europe and the Middle East.

from 1300 - 1517 is Renaissance history in Europe.

from 1517 - 1689 is the Reformation in Europe

from 1680 - 1789 is the Enlightenment in western Europe

from 1789 - 1880 is a revolutionary nationalistic period in Europe & the Americas

from 1880 - 1945 is an Imperialist period in the world as Europe & the US compete

from 1945 - today is the post-colonial, post-war or current period in world history

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Start with My Web Site move to the Index of the texts, then on to the chapters in every book we read that relate to the concepts I define and that interest you on the same subject.


Begin with the Index of the texts, then on to all of the chapters in every book we read. You keep notes on events, people, places, concepts and defined terms that relate to the arguments that the authors present and the concepts my web-site, your books and the class discussions bring to the forefront of our discussion.

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Criteria for judging the relative importance of the data:

The extent of importance in the Index of every book we read related to the concepts Which of the texts, pages, and where in the chapters is this developed? The class time in writing or discussion elaborated on the content and meaning of the idea.
¯ ¯, ¯ ¯, ¯, ¯, !
important really essential unforgettably significant


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In the texts, every chapter is a model essay. Some are better than others. Find a chapter or a piece on my web site that strikes you as similar in style to the manner or way you might want to start your essay.

When Writing do this:

All writing begins with free writing.

Notes, drafts and evidence from brainstorming or invention sessions are required and graded on a pass/fail or point basis. They affect your final grade.


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In the texts, every chapter as a model essay presents you with one or more arguments about significant ideas, explanations for events, scientific processes, descriptions of human behavior or interpretations used by the author, who knows more than we do about the subject.

So outline the argument, identify the premise and the subordinate points, then see how they relate to a conclusion.

Can you explain that to me? Come to my office and suggest verbally, based on your notes, how you would explain one of the arguments in any text that relates to your understanding of the discussion and lecture.

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Every essay conveys -- by its character-- more than one idea. So you must think about restating every idea and related points that support an argument that you will use.

Each week summarize the important facts, data, details and arguments you think we have focused on.

Conclusions are tentative, based on recent evidence for older ideas you have learned, they must be revised to reflect how the old ideas have either been affirmed, negated, altered, reinforced or modified to a definable, discernible or recognizable extent.

Any conclusion answers the question, "So what have I learned from this exercise?"

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Discussions can be messy and hard to follow unless you:

clarify what you mean,
organize the responses into a range of arguments as opposed to comments, reflect on what you are hearing based on evidence and examples. Then you may examine the arguments in order to reach a tentative conclusion.

These steps require practice but in time --if you take into consideration, all of the relevant facts, salient evidence and counter-arguments-- will make your understanding of the class as it relates to critical reading, free writing, note keeping, drafting essays, and writing papers a more sequential and organized experience.


Title | Background | Information | Essay | Argument | Conclusion | Lesson