Ecological problem solving
How do we know something to be less than true?

Degrees of uncertainty.

True is a synonym for verity. True testimony possesses a quality called veracity. The implication of these words refers to a habit of expression meaning that something is explained exactly as it occurred.

But at what level of detail does the truth give way to error?

There is a widespread belief that truth means the content of a description of something as it exists or is verified to have existed based on accurate details. The veracity of information is based on how much proof exists.

True <----------------------- less than accurate -----------------------> False

proof ============== some proof =========== no proof

certainty .................................... uncertainty

How do we verify information in an otherwise uncertain situation?

Most true bodies of knowledge are based on methods.

Methods involve the means we use to establish the veracity of statements based on evidence, the use of evidence to prove our points and the credibility of our sources. Where no proof, or insufficient evidence exists, the outcome is called a null set.

Each of these bodies of knowledge are built on methods:




The Biosphere

Biological diversity

Genetics of inheritance

Ecological accounting

Ecological criteria

Taste for country


Failure to accurately reflect what a source says is, plagiarism; (the failure to attribute ideas to their originators) a serious, fatal error in scholarship.

Ian Tattersall | Richard Feynman | Lynn Margulis | Jacob Bronowski | Stephen Hawking | Ernst Mayr