Stephen W. Hawking
The Theory of Everything:
The Origin & Fate
of the Universe (1996)
A chronology of our
changing views of the cosmos
Ptolemy: maps of the earth and the heavens for "picturing the world."
Nicholas Copernicus: the sun is the center of the planets.
Mathematica Naturalis Causae
the gravitational field (forces) of a massive star might stop light
Heinrich Olbers' paradox: : "why doesn't the night sky look uniformly bright?"
of Relativity, Albert Einstein (static universe and a cosmological
constant) gravity affects light-quantum particles
expanding universe is deduced from General Theory of Relativity
discovered by Edwin Hubble
limit proposed on stellar masses predicts existence of white
discovers star's luminosity based on Doppler shift appear in the
red end of the spectrum and thus confirms expanding universe
explains what occurs when massive stars implode: a region in space-time
is created from which nothing may ever escape.
Church explains the Big Bang Theory is in accord with scripture
Wilson, Bell Labs, universal microwave radiation
theorizes that "a singularity" exists in a collapsed star
of sufficient mass: later called a "black hole."
The term black
hole is coined by John Wheeler to explain the collapse of massive
how some radiation may escape a black hole
on cosmology and the big bang theory.
is origins of our current concepts of the material universe?
"Radiation from black holes was the first example of a prediction that depended on both
great theories of this century, general relativity and quantum mechanics."
"This means that
the laws of physics need not breakdown at the origin of the universe.
The state of the universe and its contents, like ourselves, are completely
determined by the laws of physics, up to the limit set by the uncertainty
principle. So much for free will."
"Our own sun
contains about 2 percent of these heavier elements because it is a second
or third generation star. It was formed some five thousand million years
ago out of a cloud of rotating gas containing the debris of earlier supernovas."
"...a small amount
of the heavier elements collected together to form the bodies that now
orbit the sun as planets like the Earth."
"So long as the
universe had a beginning that was a singularity, one could suppose that
it was created by an outside agency. But if the universe is really completely
self contained, having no boundary or edge, it would be neither created
nor destroyed. It would simply be. What place then, for a creator?"
"it is forbidden
by the second law of thermodynamics. This says that disorder or entropy
always increases with time. In other words, it is Murphy's Law – things
of disorder or entropy with time is one example of what is called an arrow
of time, something that gives direction to time and distinguishes
the past from the future."
Three varieties of
the arrows of time:
we recall the past but not the future.
universal expansion rather than contraction.
"...If we do
discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad
principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall be able
to take part in the discussion of why the universe exists. If we find
the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason.
For then we would know the mind of God."
Tattersall | Richard
Feynman | Jacob Bronowski | Stephen
Hawking | Ernst Mayr
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