Coastal studies are miniture ecology courses.
Protecting the coast:
preservation vs. conservation | biocentric view
"The river valleys of the Atlantic shore cut through the
coastal plain, creating large numbers of estuaries, many of which are bordered
by extensive tidal marshes. These coastal wetlands have been held in public
trust since the original colonial grants. Unlike rights in other portions of
the public domain, the public rights to fishing, hunting, and navigation on
tidal lands could not be extinguished by sale to private concerns."
The terms you need to know and use in essays.
2, A Frontier of Estuaries
Review | Key
Players | Significant Idea | Summary
Review of Chapter Two's
Seawater is diluted by rivers provides a rich mixing ground of different water densities. There is where nutrients and organic matter are trapped and fish feed, breed, or pass through the area on there way up and down the river.
The Chesapeake Bay
"Richard Hakluyt's three-volume work, The Principal Navigations Voyages Traffiques & Discoveries Made by Sea or Overland to the Remote & Farthest Distant Quarters of the Earth . . . ., first published in London between 1598 & 1600. "
fishing and hunting
- Concentration of the densest native American populations.
- Coastal areas and food
- Native American ritual for use of resources
Earliest landing sites of European
- Florida, April, 1513
- 1524, Verrazano & Atlantic sites are "commodius and delightful
- Arthur Barlowe's paintings of St. Augustine
- 1609 Henry Hudson expedition to New York Bay --upper and lower bays
- Captain John Smith and the mouth of the Susquehanna River
Two opposing views of the Chesapeake
Ship worm infestation made the use of estuaries essential
to ship maintenance
Robert Beverly's history of Virginia
Extent of Southern coastal swamps thwarted attempts to drain
and reclaim coastal wetlands.
Export or cash crop agriculture developed based on slaves.
11/29/1641 Wharf needs for shipping in Boston; by 1645
mills and wharfs at Faneuil Hall Square.
Dutch in New Amsterdam, huge and diverse
numbers of edible fish.
Boston 1663 - 1710 and the creation of Long Wharf
Water bailiffs as examples of communal control with access
of citizens to bays for fishing and fowling.
"filling of tidal wetlands furthered maritime success." Navigability
of waterways as a common interest.
Use of mechanical power
- Filling of Eastern Manhattan
- Preindustrial Urban Landscapes
- European attitude & Martin Hale marshes show a lack of
Colonial agrarian economy
- 1645 first ladle dredger used in Holland for reclamation.
- Using technology to overcome natural hazards, obstacles and
- Opposition, fishers and fowlers; the Lord of the Fens, Oliver
Cromwell. "lay dry the land."
Analysis | Introduction | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | Themes | Thesis | Vocabulary | Dates
| Technology | Population | Preservation | Geographical regeneration | Law |
"All the rivers run into the sea,
Yet the sea is not full.
From whence the rivers come
Thither they return again."
1 Coastal wetlands and features of estuaries are defined.
"A natural reciprocal nurturing of ocean and earth creates abundant wildlife in coastal wetlands. Here, salt and fresh water flow together
in tidal marshes, creating rare shorelines of unsurpassed natural fertility
by converting solar energy into food. Swelling tidal fluctuations recycle vital
nutrients that encourage rapid vegetation growth followed by quick decay.....
Both native and migratory wildlife thrive on the tide-mulched marsh grass fields."
"Coastal bodies of water where streams or rivers flow into
the ocean are called estuaries."
or mouths of rivers as they enter the sea, are a geographical unit of enormous,
historical importance because of their ecology, cultural transformation and numerous
"Throughout the nation today a series of state ad
federal estuarine refuges exist as quiet testimony to the ideals, efforts and
commitment of local conservation groups, planners, engineers, and scientists.
These advocates possess a resolute maturity in asserting that some places must
be set aside for future generations because, as Rachel Carson once remarked,
'man's way is not always the best.'"
Overview of an important theme:
The emergence of an organic, meaning natural and interelated or systemic perspective originated with observations in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in coastal America.
it amounted to a biocentric vision of protection.
That became the biological foundation as a necessary precedent to comprehending (some years later) the ecological integrity of land, air and water.
It started with Thoreau, Marsh, and Olmsted and grew to influence Mumford, Odum, Leopold, Hardin, Commoner, Ehrlich and Carson.
Protection was best defined by five complementary but distinctly unrelated events revealed in publications, actions and the origins of a careful study of nature in a systematically functional way.
1864 George P. Marsh, Man and Nature
Powell's strategy meant the protection of water sources, that is forests as spring sources, rivers and underground water recharge areas. Where insufficient water sources existed he suggested the creation of reservoirs and aqueducts. He represented a pragmatic philosophy that understood the organic constraints of landscape based on the availability of and proximity to water.
- Origins of fish and bird preservation,
- artificial fish propagation
- Lake Merritt estuary protection in Calif, 1870.
- John Wesley Powell, 1878, Plan for
the Arid Regions
the underlying difference
reiteration of the protectionist philosophies in the development of a conservationist
impulse arose out of a concern for diminished wildlife and fisheries, a rising population and technologial pressure on land, water and scarce resources (renewable as opposed to inorganic metals, salts, gases or fuel oils).
|recreation and contemplation
||reclamation and reservoirs
|fisheries and non-game wildlife
||hunting and game management
|quality and functionality
||zoning and distribution
|public trust and access
||persistent use and reuse
|perpetuating past purposes
||future needs & rate of regeneration
A life-centered approach to protecting fish and bird habitats arose from this tension between preserving the beauty (aesthetics) and conserving the use (functionality) of natural resoutces.
* Utilitarian is the greatest good for the greatest number; in
conservation it means the wisest use for the largest number of users over
the longest period of time.
The Origins of Ecology
used by Henry David Thoreau, in his notebooks as a naturlist's form of field observation.
invented by Ernst Haeckel -- a German
Darwinian scholar based on Darwin's (1859) distinction between the organic
and inorganic conditions of existence.
Federal surveys of water in rivers and streams began before the war but burgeoned after the
war, rivers, fish, birds, geology.
Santa Rosa Island, Florida utilitarian conservation of live oak
trees and forests for naval shipbuilding and defense. (1828)
- Addison Verrill described fresh, brackish, and salt
- Organic ideal of fish and (bird) wildlife protection.
- John Marshall's Gibbons vs. Ogden decision, 1826
- Colonial wildlife preservation
The public domain & public trust in sovereign lands
Tidelands as a public trust for purposes
of navigation, fishing and hunting.
Swamplands acts 1848-1850 made reclamation
or drainage and levee building a federal priority, an early utilitarian focus on the functional conversion "wasteland" into agricultural land, was eventually a boondoggle for the conveyence of public trust lands into the possession of private holders. Public expense mounted because the removal of floodplain or over flow lands forced that water downstream and the land -- in the absence of water-- shrank because it became compacted and decreased in height or altitude with respect to the adjacent river bed.
- Hydrodynamics of scour for channel maintenance
- legal opinions of the public trust doctrine and inalienability
of submerged lands
- Common benefits of navigable waterways.
- Public domain defined
• upland and upriver swamp reclamation aggravated flooding
• removal of water and spawning areas, nurseries or feeding grounds fostered a decline in fisheries.
• conducted by Charles Ellet, the 1852 Mississippi River Survey, revealed the extent to which deforestation of upland, drainage of flooded swamps, and levee construction along vulnerable flood plains all aggravated the displacement of water upstream leaving it nowhere to go except to wreak havoc downstream, because he recognized the river as a tightly coupled inorganic system that nourished organic relations among fisheries and habitats.
Ellet had a watershed and multistate
perspective to solve the river's siltation and flood problems. A watershed is an inorganic and systemic conceptualization of the unitary character of how surface water shapes the contours of the landscape.
Ellet proposed a technological remedy to correct the impacts of settlement,
deforestation, swampland drainage policy, and badly written and administered laws.
Cholera epidemics swept through in 1832, 1849,
& 1866, pointing up bad water quality
California rivers had similar problems of flooding due to drainage and due to deforestation carried greater
amounts of silt and sediment, whose deposition actually raised the bed of the river. The raised river bed actually displaced water ever higher against naturally occurring and constructed levees.
Levees were essential to prevent flooding on the Sacramento
Levees required coordinated efforts which were often lacking.
Water pollution due to poor sanitation and dumping of manufacturing wastes adversely affected people's health.
Flood control planning and public health protection
required a comprehensive view.
Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. (landscape engineer) and George Waring
(sanitary engineer) had such a vision.
Urban parks and sanitation reform
both advocated a communal vision.
Olmsted and organic constraints of urban and
wild parks: NYC & Yosemite.
Technology of sewers, parkways and parks was the instrument
of civic rejuvenation
Recognized the need to engineer in order to restore "disturbed harmonies"
induced by population, settlements, industry and waste.
George Waring and sanitary engineering as a civic duty
State police power to protect and promote public health
George Perkins Marsh, understood the local ties that make up both regional and international
sense of place
Marsh, Man and Nature, 1864, was a pioneering work on
how humans alter the geography often to their own demise.
p. 79 - 80.
The Organic Revolt
Marsh, Ruffin, Ellet and Olmsted form
a powerful organic approach to understanding human impact on natural
features and the limitations these impose on societies.
for geographical regeneration significantly altered the attitudes of
specialists toward land legislation, river policies, and wildlife conservation
"Their ideas reflected a systemic understanding of land as
a series of biotic communities, and these ideas appeared before such attitudes
were commonplace among scientific specialists."
Most important theme?
Protection -- to prevent the destruction, if not repair the damage, or maintain the intrinsic value of a person, place, or thing from undue stress leading to a decline in the functional responses inhernet in the desired circumstances, organisms or systems that promote existence or sustain dependent conditions.
Sovereign lands, those areas of ungranted land (tidelands) belonging to the monarch's estate or states having public access for the protection of their inherent reources; forests, fisheries or hunting wildlife.
J. Siry, Marshes of the Ocean Shore.
Coastal study guide
What is a natural asset?
How large are hurricanes?
Date: 19 March 2008