Non Governmental Organizations
Top down; Natural Resources Defense Council, World Wildlife Fund,
Bottom up; Sierra Club, Massachusetts Audubon,
"They effectively disseminate research results, especially to delegates from developing countries, and promote favored policies such as the precautionary principle."
"Scholars have found evidence that NGOs have significant influence on environmental policy."
"Politics always influences environmental science....Politics chooses among alternate research plans on the basis of scientific and other criteria."
While scientists could not adequately define what constitutes a forest to suit political constraints (bounded rationality), policy makers were able to define "forests" as "climate change sinks" (carbon sinks because the absorb, or store carbon dioxide as cellulose, starch and sugars).
This is an example of "politics defining the concept of science."
"In environmental issues, power reflects contribution to the problem in terms of pollution or resource use or to its solution through financial or technical resources."
"Knowledge brokers also ensure that system structures are designed to produce policy-relevant knowledge."
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