(Eberhart; pp. 17.)
Why Things Break: Understanding the World by the Way it Comes Apart, pp 17-21.
-- technology as the knowledge of cause and effect:
any tool emerges from:
technique ------------------- language
organization <------------------------> symbolic logic
Findings in Anatolia, central Turkey, tin mining was a well-developed industry in that area as long ago as 2870 B.C., at the dawn of the Bronze Age.
A scholar notes that this "finding that may change established theories about economic and metallurgical developments in the Bronze Age Mediterranean world."
"By closing a significant gap in our understanding of metal production, our research has become central to interpretive efforts aimed at understanding the use of metals in urban areas," she said. The Bronze Age, which began about 3000 B.C. with the knowledge of how when alloying copper (90-95 parts per hundred) with tin (10 to 5 parts per hundred) a more efficient metal is produced by fire.
"Tin's economic role in the metal technology of the time is perhaps akin to that of oil in industry today. It was the most important additive to the then high-tech metal of its age -- bronze," Yener said.
Technology is briefly defined as the study of “objects and products that allow us to do things” (Pursell. 14) But as you will see defining technology is not simple because, as Eberhart suggested and Pursell emphasizes there is a three way relationship among ideas, techniques and materials. These related facets of any artifact (coke bottle, hammer, or mobile-phone) explain the complex way in which a tool and its associated tools fit together to define technology more systematically.
A roman plough, with a metal tip to cut furrows.
tools are useless without users:
B. The plow enables the effective spread of agriculture
Wheat and grapes --native to the Caucaus, growing in the Rhineland, Germany.
users without a comprehension of materials are useless:
John Contasble's painting of Flatford Mill, 1816, depicta an image of how extenisvley agriculture's enormous and widespread influence changed the landscape, altered labor and promoted canal technology during the period when mechanical means were being replaced by the tools of the "industrial revolution."
Stained glass image portraying the Biblical story of the Tower of Babel.
Analogies to the ideas expressed in Eberhart, Postman, and Pursell:
A. an object -- the material tools themselves or implements
B. the subject -- the techniques we employ to handle tools
C. the context or means of employing A + B to some purpose - means technology is the study of things and their makers and users with the means to perform actions toward some particular ends.
The need for exchange -- copper ore & tin ore places were separated by great distances.
A number of significant innovations took: time, observation, experience and eventually language to capitalize on the achievements of fire, stone working and metals.
This page was created, by J. Siry.