Science as a reliable means of knowing errors.
Distinguishing factual order versus fictive disorder in existence when facts are stranger than fiction.
This is a process | 1. hypothesis | 2. Case | 3. Methods | 4. Anomalies | 5. Questions
Feynman | Dubos | Singh | Dubos question
1. Any hypothesis is a speculative means to an end.
• 1.1, An hypothesis can involve a syllogism based on Aristotle's arguments about logical inference.
• 1.2, The hypothesis here about complexity of material existence is: order is implicit in nature.
there exists a discoverable, rational, and provable knowledge of the
"order of things."
All the world is made of the same atoms.
scientific is limited, of course, to those
things that we can tell about by trial and error.
Trying to understand the way nature works involves
a most terrible test of human reasoning ability.
meaning is derived from the explanation of a repetitive
pattern in the experience of existence,
really means test,
and the exception tests the rule, and
The exception proves that the rule is wrong.
[Feynman, p. 16.]
Then, the behavior of atoms and molecules they sustain, tie all material conditions from stellar fusion to immune responses in animals together in a complicated ensemble of consequential conditions where one impact influences another situation.
Discoverable | Atoms | Trial & Error | Reasoning ability is tested | Exception proves the rule - anomalies
Apply the hypothesis when when answering,
Why do we get sick and even die in hideous ways from apparently
What steps where used to test and discover exceptions
to understand this "white plague"?
2. René and Jean Dubos, The
White Plague, 1952.
How did knowledge of TB change based on the role of diagnostic
practice, instrumentation or technology, and descriptive as opposed to experimental research from one period to another?
- diagnostic practice,
- instrumentation and
- research from one physician to another
"…we have used the generic name tuberculosis for a whole group of diseases cause by tubercle bacilli. The word is so well known today as to need no explanation, and yet it seems to have appeared in print for the first time around 1840, and has come into common use only during the last fifty years."
3. Any means to know is called a methodology.
Methods: how we discover something is often called heuristics after the term "the Eureka effect" alleged to have been what Archimedes said in a loud voice upon getting out of his bathtub.
The art & demonstration of explaining what
we know for certain.
The contrasting means to explain are analytical meaning to separate to know the parts and synthetic meaning to combine in order to comprehend the scope.
|Three ways to know, however, are:
Rational (it makes sense)
Empirical (it passes tests)
Heuristic (it is blind tested)
Subsequent stages in our understanding did not always produce viable diagnosis, or reliable treatments.
a process | 1. hypothesis | 2. Case | 3. Methods | 4. Anomalies | 5. Questions
4. Exceptions that refute the rule are anomalous
The meaning and identity of anomalies:
Never believe an untested assumption, always inquire
Bacon's idols are an example of nearly universal assumptions
that many if not all people make.
Folly arises from operating under unexamined assumptions despite the anomalous warnings.
Discoverable | Atoms | Trial & Error | Reasoning ability is tested | Exceptions prove the rule
5. Similar mistakes drawn from mathematics, biology, or earth science.
Singh in Fermat's Last Theorem, or Siry in Marshes of the Ocean Shore the propensity for error–as in Darwin's arguments– hampered the advance of knowledge, applied discoveries, and helped generate cultural stickiness' transmutation into social retardation.
What mistakes were made?
By applying the Pythagorean Theorem to another [third or
fourth] dimension, what is misunderstood?
By thinking that low lying wetlands or marshes were bad places
that generated "malaria," and fevers, what is the error?
A process | 1. Hypothesis | 2. Case | 3. Methods | 4. Anomalies | 5. Questions
| Dubos | Singh | Question
real versus ideal: is an old debate
to other science related questions
Index | Site Analysis
| Population Index | Global
Warming Index | Nature Index