"In commerce it is the slave mart and the source of ivory, ebony, rubber, gold and diamonds."
"Africa is at once the most romantic and most tragic of continents. Its very names reveal its mystery and wide-reaching influence."
"Primarily Africa is the land of the Blacks."
"The modern world , in contrast, knows the Negro chiefly as a bond slave in the West Indies and America. Add to this the fact that the darker races of other parts of the world have, in the last four centuries, lagged behind the flying and even feverish footsteps of Europe, and we face today a widespread assumption throughout the dominant world that color is a mark of inferiority."
"The typical Negro is a rare variety even among Negroes."
"In fact it is generally recognized today that no scientific definition of race is possible."
Africa is a divided continent, it is the most varied of all -- that is more diversity of human groups live in Africa than in any other continent:
"Today we realize that there are no hard and fast racial types among men (people). Race is a dynamic and not a static conception. . .
"The Portuguese began . . .sailing down the Atlantic coast and initiating the modern slave trade . . . but as traders in men rather than explorers."
"When therefore, a demand for workmen arose in America, European exportation was limited by religious ties and economic stability. African exportation was encouraged not simply by the Christian attitude toward heathen, but also by the Moslem enmity toward the unconverted Negroes."
"Nevertheless, by 1501, we have the first incidental mention of Negroes going to America in a declaration that Negro slaves "born in the power of Christians were to be allowed to pass to the Indies, and the officers of the royal revenue were to receive the money to be paid for their permits."
"Negro slaves . . sent to Hispaniola. . . fled amongst the Indians and taught them bad customs and never could be captured."
p. 147 .
"fifty to be sent out from Seville for the mines in 1510." to Diego Columbus on Hispaniola.
"for he always held they had been made slaves unjustly and tyrannically."
Slaves imported under the Assiento treaties went to all parts of the Americas
Before 1530 there were enough Negroes in Mexico to lead to an insurrection, where the Negroes fought desperately, but were overcome and their ringleaders executed."
"the Dutch found better scope for slaves in Guiana, which they settled in 1616. Sugar cane became the staple crop, but the Negroes began to revolt and the Dutch brought in East Indians."
"It was in the island of Hayti, that French slavery centered." 1663 France seized the island from Spain.
By 1680 there were so many slaves and mulattoes that uis the XIV issued his famous Code Noir, which was notable in requirong bachelor masters, the fathers of slave children, to marry their concubines.
...but familes could not be separated by sale except in the case of grown children."
"Emancipation with full civil rights was made possible for any slave twenty years of age or more."
The consequences of the French Revolution: July, 1789.
In Haiti and the French West Indies "When the French Revolution broke out. . . . this led the French government to grant full civil rights to free Negroes."
"Immediately planters and free Negroes flew to arms against each other and then, suddenly, August 22, 1791, the black slaves, of whom there were four hundred and fifty two thousand, arose in revolt to help the free Negroes."
The Negro population of these lands (coastal South America) is everywhere in process of rapid amalgamation with whites and indians."
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, 1868 - 1968, Sociologist, co-founder of the Niagara Movement that was the origins of the NAACP or the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (usually abbreviated as NAACP) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. The NAACP was founded on February 12, 1909 by a diverse group in Baltimore, Maryland.
Date: 1 April 2008