Rules or laws of ecology
Solving ecological problems
For example coastal
California, Florida and the Chesapeake Bay, in addition to mountain
forests or grassland steppes, are examples of some of the sites for
which good evidence exists to see changes in productivity, populations
and turn-over of soil and vegetational nutrients.
Current System (CCS) is a coastal up welling biome, as found along
the eastern margins of all major ocean basins. These are among the
most productive coastal ecosystems in the world ocean. The CCS sustains
active fisheries for a variety of finfish and marine invertebrates,
modulates weather patterns and the hydrologic cycle of much of the
western United States, and plays a vital role in the economy of myriad
Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) is a 3,160 hectare reserve located
in the White Mountain National Forest, near Woodstock, New Hampshire.
The on-site research program is dedicated to the long-term study of
forest and associated aquatic ecosystems.
Barbara Coastal LTER is located in the coastal zone of southern California
near Santa Barbara. It is bounded by the steep east-west trending
Santa Ynez Mountains and coastal plain to the north and the unique
Northern Channel Islands archipelago to the south. Point Conception,
where the coast of California returns to a north to south orientation,
lies at the western boundary, and the Santa Clara River marks its
eastern edge.The site lies on the active boundary of the Pacific Oceanic
Plate and the North American Continental Plate. High levels of tectonic
activity have created dramatic elevation gradients in both the terrestrial
and the underwater landscapes of the site. The Santa Barbara Channel
includes some of the deepest ocean basins known on the continental
shelf along with remarkable submarine canyons and escarpments.
of the Eastern Shore of
Virginia's VCR/LTER focus on the mosaic of transitions and steady-state
systems that comprise the barrier-island/lagoon/mainland landscape
of the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Primary study sites are located
on Hog Island, Parramore Island and mainland marshes near Nassawadox
VA. The VCR/LTER maintains a laboratory facility in Oyster, VA.
majority of Florida Coastal
Everglades LTER sites are located in freshwater marsh, estuarine mangroves,
sea grass estuary ecosystems in Everglades National Park. Everglades
National Park covers approximately 4300 km2 of south Florida and is
part of the greater Everglades ecosystem which extends north to Lake
Okeechobee and the Kissimmee River. Research Our research focuses
on understanding ecosystem processes along the two major drainage
basins in Everglades National Park: Shark River Slough and Taylor
Slough. We are particularly interested in the dynamics at the estuarine
ecotone, where freshwater and estuarine wetlands meet. This ecotone
is dynamic in the landscape in response to changing freshwater inflow
(with Everglades restoration), sea level rise (climate change responses),
and disturbance (particularly hurricanes and fire). This represents
the third largest wilderness area in the lower 48 states.
site encompasses a large portion of the Colorado Piedmont Section
of the western Great Plains. The extent is defined as the boundaries
of the Central Plains Experimental Range (CPER), which is managed
by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and the Pawnee National
Grassland (PNG), which is managed by the US Forest Service. Expansion
into the PNG has allowed us to explore the biotic interactions of
the SGS ecosystem across a range of climatic, geologic, topographic
and land use conditions. The CPER has a single ownership and landuse
(livestock grazing). The PNG is characterized by a mosaic of ownership
and land use. Ownership includes federal, state or private and land
use consists of livestock grazing or row-crops. There are NGO conservation
groups that exert influence over the area, particularly on federal
lands. This varied land use and diversity associated with land users
and managers substantiates the importance of the sgs-lter to the area.
Three facets of ecological problems are always:
be seen and understood as alterations in the relationships existing at any time among
these three components of the labor theory of value:
The above categories of land, labor and wealth --or three components of the labor theory of value-- are related because John Locke, among many others, believed that the time it takes to produce something determines its value, worth or true contributions to wealth.
A real Arbiter of Value:
the steam engine changed everything, even how we think.
The steam engine reversed the importance of land and labor after its introduction.
The time it took to do something was no longer a single measure of value or the worth of anything. Instead the costs of resources, especially energy and waste heat became important measures of efficiency.