What is land ?

Land as "a maze of services and competitions, of piracies and cooperations," said Aldo Leopold in 1948.

landscape of Southern Britain.

Sangre de Cristo Mountains in snow, basin and range system.


Weal is the root word of the English word, weald meaning an extensive forest. This is also the root of the word wealth, suggesting the signal importance of forests to the medieval economy. Without forests the economy of the preindustrial world was not merely impoverished, it was impossible. There are lessons about how life survives in even a simple stroll through the woods.

Washington State, clear cut in a National Forest.

Every place is composed of four elements:

Radiant energy, Atmospheric conditions, Watershed, and Terrain.


Water | Energy | Air | Land

Cultural landscapes

US national land system

Land of Little Rain, by Mary Austin

landscape, the origins and meaning

Land ethic described by Aldo Leopold

Visual Images of the US landscape patterns


The land mechanism is actually the biotic pyramid representing a flowing of energy and nutrients in a perpetual cycle of depletion and renewal.

[ according to Leopold ]






River in Virginia's Blue Ridge Mountains east, or downstream, of Natural Bridge.


Weal can be thought of as the directional compass of biotic navigation.

Civilization and the biosphere

Water | Energy | Air | Land

Above is pictured a three dimensional view of a watershed, while below is an arial view of a watershed.

Utah in winter.

Land, landscape, water and wildlife are entwined and have their own alphabet to learn when understanding how weal gives rise to a deeper comprehension of land as an organism which sustains human life.

Adaptive Management

Biological Diversity

Carrying Capacity

Density of use





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