I = P * A * T
Environmental History is the study of how settlements alter ecological conditions and how those changes influence each era’s ideas about nature with respect to responsible resource use from one period to the next.
Ideas meaning those concepts associated with the perception, ideology and values that contribute to methods of discovery with respect to our surrounding land, air and water when contrasted with an Earth’s eye view of the past.
Perception, ideology, and values
Natives as diverse beyond our experience, farmers, horses.
Changes in scale with respect to means of altering surroundings
Subsistence 1 one
Commercial 10 10
Manufacturing 100 102
Urban 1000 103
Industrial 10000 104
Metropolitan (suburban) 100000 105
Hyper-industrial 1000000 106
Examples of the changes in landscape:
characteristics of the periods
River – based 1600-1900:
Planting - production oriented
Railroad – 1830-1950:
Urban concentration – production to consuming oriented
Birth of metro-areas SMSA
Hyper-industrial (high water & electrical use)
Changes in populations
Amount of people Year Number of years elapsed
Population -- 3 million 1790 base
30 million 1860 + 27
100 million 1900 + 70
300 million 2000 +200
¥ technological change, qualities of.