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by Dr. David Orr
"The four essays. . . attempt to define the scope and depth of the crisis of sustainability."
The Problem of Sustainability
"the causes of our plight"
Three crises are looming in the future:
These three crises– "They are interactive in ways that we cannot fully anticipate."
Our situation today
Our ecological problems are "unique in its range and scope"
"be adapted to biophysical limits"
"The crisis can be interpreted as a result of one or more social traps;
Causes "deeper ones that become harder to define"
Economic growth (6-11)
"The cultivation of mass consumption through advertising promotes the psychology of instant gratification and easy credit, which create pressures that lead to risky technological fixes, perhaps the biggest trap of all."
Urge to dominate nature (11-15)
An evolutionary wrong term (16)
the human condition (17)
"The crisis of sustainability is without process."
"Economic development has been a largely crisis driven process that occurs when a society outgrows it resource base."
"social breakdown–what ecologists call 'overshoot.'
"Galileo and Adam Smith" symbols of an age, or a bygone era we need to let loose of?
". . .it must monitor and restrain human demands against the biosphere. This will require an unprecedented vigilance and the institutionalization of restraints through some combination" of means.
The Populist Movement, p. 284.
V Ecological Literacy
"the more demanding capacity to observe nature with insight, a merger of landscape and mindscape."
"driven by the sense of wonder."
"from conqueror of the land community, to plain member and citizen of it."
Aldo Leopold, p. 90.
"requires increased resource efficiency."
"the public understands the relation between its well-being and the health of natural systems."
Six foundations of ecological literacy education.
What will people need to know to live responsibly and well?
"Ecology has been isolated with in biology departments as though it had little or nothing to do with the social sciences, humanities, or the professions."
"striving for harmony with the land"
consciousness of land as Aldo Leopold suggested in the 1940s.
"biospheric viewpoint and deep ecologists advocate much more sweeping changes in the human relationship to the natural world...."
Many thinkers really differ with environmental studies over:
"there are good precedents for the integration of objectivity with a strong value orientation."
not "passive receptors of information."
"harmony with nature is important"
Other knowledge values --"character, intuition, feeling, practical abilities and intstincts...,"
Knowledge,...is biased by the way in which we determine social and economic priorities."
understanding of ecosystems and the human role in nature." requires
"Integrative perceiving" as a new basis for ecological knowledge.
The reason we know so much in certain subjects is the domination of research by commercial corporations: agribusiness and not soil science, pharmaceuticals and not preventive medicine.
"survival issues ... involve whole systems of knowledge and many disciplines."
"Environmental education is unavoidably political."
"At the heart of the issue is the total demand humans make on the biosphere and the way we have organized the flows of energy, water, material, food, and wastes, which in turn affects what political scientists define as the essential issues of politics: 'Who gets what, when, and how?'"
"The symptoms of environmental deterioration are in the domain of the natural sciences,but the causes lie in the realm of the social sciences and humanities."
Understanding ecological integrity
David Bordwell & Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction.